SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ahti, T., Hämet-Ahti, L. & Jalas, J. (1968) Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Annales Botanici Fennici, 5, 169211.
  • Beniston, M. (2003) Climatic change in mountain regions: a review of possible impacts. Climatic Change, 59, 531.
  • Bonan, G.B. & Sirois, L. (1992) Air temperature, tree growth, and the northern and southern limits to Picea mariana. Journal of Vegetation Science, 3, 495506.
  • Crawford, R.M.M. (2005) Peripheral plant population survival in polar regions. Mountain Ecosystems. Studies in Tree line Ecology (eds G.Broll & B.Keplin), pp. 4376. Springer, Berlin.
  • Ensminger, I., Sveshnikov, D., Campbell, D.A., Funk, C., Jansson, S., Lloyd, J. (2004) Intermittent low temperatures constrain spring recovery of photosynthesis in boreal Scots pine forests. Global Change Biology, 10, 9951008.
  • Gamache, I. & Payette, S. (2004) Height growth response of tree line black spruce to recent climate warming across the forest-tundra of eastern Canada. Journal of Ecology, 92, 835845.
  • Germino, M.J., Smith, W.K. & Resor, A.C. (2002) Conifer seedling distribution and survival in an alpine-tundra ecotone. Plant Ecology, 162, 157168.
  • Grace, J., Berninger, F. & Nagy, L. (2002) Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Annals of Botany, 90, 537544.
  • Grace, J. & Norton, D.A. (1990) Climate and growth of Pinus sylvestris at its upper altitudinal limit in Scotland: evidence from tree growth-rings. Journal of Ecology, 78, 601610.
  • Graumlich, L., Waggoner, L.A. & Bunn. A.C. (2005) Detecting global change at alpine tree line: coupling paleoecology with contemporary studies. Global Change and Mountain Regions (eds U.M.Huber, H.K.M.Bugman & M.A.Reasoner), pp. 501508. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Harris, S.A. (2001) Twenty years of data on climate-permafrost-active layer variations at the lower limit of alpine permafrost, Marmot Basin, Jasper National Park. Geografiska Annaler, 83A, 114.
  • Holtmeier, F.-K. (2003) Mountain Timberlines. Ecology, Patchiness, and Dynamics. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  • IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001. The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge.
  • Johnson, E.A., Miyaniski, K. & Kleb, H. (1994) The hazards of interpreting static age structures as shown by stand reconstructions in a Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest. Journal of Ecology, 82, 921930.
  • Juntunen, V., Neuvonen, S., Norokorpi, Y. & Tasanen, T. (2002) Potential for timberline advance in northern Finland, as revealed by monitoring during 1983–99. Arctic, 55, 348361.
  • Kjällgren, L. & Kullman, L. (2002) Geographical patterns of tree-limits of Norway spruce and Scots pine in the southern Swedish Scandes. Norwegian Journal of Geography, 56, 237245.
  • Körner, C. & Paulsen, J. (2004) A world-wide study of high altitude tree line temperatures. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 713732.
  • Kullman, L. (1981) Recent tree-limit dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the southern Swedish Scandes. Wahlenbergia, 7, 167.
  • Kullman, L. (1984) Germinability of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa) along two altitudinal transects downslope from the tree-limit in Sweden. Reports from the Kevo Subarctic Research Station, 19, 1118.
  • Kullman, L. (1997) Tree-limit stress and disturbance. A 25-year survey of geoecological change in the Scandes Mountains of Sweden. Geografiska Annaler, 79A, 139165.
  • Kullman, L. (2001) 20th century climate warming trend and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden. Ambio, 30, 7280.
  • Kullman, L. (2004a) The changing face of the alpine world. Global Change Newsletter, 57, 1214.
  • Kullman, L. (2004b) Tree-limit landscape evolution at the southern fringe of the Swedish Scandes (Dalarna province) – Holocene and 20th century perspectives. Fennia, 182, 7394.
  • Kullman, L. (2004c) Wind-conditioned 20th century decline of birch tree line vegetation in the Swedish Scandes. Arctic, 58, 286294.
  • Kullman, L. (2005a) Pine (Pinus sylvestris) tree line dynamics during the past millennium – a population study in west-central Sweden. Annales Botanici Fennici, 42, 95106.
  • Kullman, L. (2005b) Old and new trees on Mt Fulufjället in Dalarna, central Sweden. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 99, 315329.
  • Kullman, L. (2006a) Alpine tree encroachment and plant species enrichment. Long-term geobotanical observations of climate change impacts in the Scandes of West-Central Sweden. Nordic Journal of Botany, in press.
  • Kullman, L. (2006b) Transformation of alpine and subalpine vegetation in a potentially warmer future, the Anthropocene era. Tentative projections based on long-term observations and paleovegetation records. Current Trends in Ecology, in press.
  • Kullman, L. & Högberg, N. (1989) Rapid natural decline of upper montane forests in the Swedish Scandes. Arctic, 42, 217226.
  • Kullman, L. & Kjällgren, L. (2006) Holocene pine tree-line evolution in the Swedish Scandes: recent tree-line rise and climate change in a long-term perspective. Boreas, 35, 159168.
  • Lavoie, C. & Payette, S. (1992) Black spruce growth forms as a record of a changing winter environment at tree line, Quebec, Canada. Arctic and Alpine Research, 24, 4049.
  • Linderholm, H. (2001) Climatic influence on Scots pine growth on dry and wet soils in the central Scandinavian mountains, interpreted from tree-ring widths. Silva Fennica, 35, 415424.
  • Lloyd, A.H. (2005) Ecological histories from Alaskan tree line provide insight into future change. Ecology, 86, 16871695.
  • Mazepa, V.S. (2005) Stand density in the last millennium at the upper tree-line ecotone in the Polar Ural Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 282291.
  • Meshinev, T., Apostolova, I. & Koleva, E. (2000) Influence of warming on timberline rising. A case study in Pinus peuce Griseb. in Bulgaria. Phytocoenologia, 30, 431438.
  • Moberg, A., Tuomenvirta, H. & Nordli, Ø. (2005) Recent climatic trends. The Physical Geography of Fennoscandia (ed. M.Seppälä), pp. 112133. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Moiseev, P.A. & Shiyatov, S.G. (2003) Vegetation dynamics at the tree line ecotone in the Ural Highlands, Russia. Alpine Biodiversity in Europe (eds L.Nagy, G.Grabherr, C.Körner & D.B.A.Thompson), pp. 423435. Springer, Berlin.
  • Moiseev, P.A., Van Der Meer, Rigling, A. & Shevchenko, I.G. (2004) Effect of climatic changes on the formation of Siberian spruce generations in the subgoltsy tree stands of the southern Urals. Russian Journal of Ecology, 35, 135143.
  • Payette, S. & Lavoie, C. (1994) The arctic tree line as a record of past and recent climatic change. Environmental Reviews, 2, 7890.
  • Räisänen, J., Hansson, U., Ullerstig, A., Döscher, R., Graham, L.P., Jones, C. et al. (2003) European climate in the late twenty-first century: regional simulations with two driving global models and two forcing scenarios. Climate Dynamics, 22, 1331.
  • Slot, M., Wirth, C., Schumacher, J., Mohren, G.M.J., Shibistova, O., Lloyds, J. et al. (2005) Regeneration patterns in boreal Scots pine glades linked to cold- induced photoinhibition. Tree Physiology, 25, 11391150.
  • Smith, W.K., Germino, M.J., Hancock, T.E. & Johnson, D.M. (2003) Another perspective on altitudinal limits of alpine timberlines. Tree Physiology, 23, 11011112.
  • Sturm, M., Racine, C. & Tape, K. (2001) Increasing shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature, 411, 546547.
  • Sutinen, M.L., Mäkitalo, K. & Sutinen, R. (1996) Freezing dehydration damages roots of containerized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings overwintering under subarctic conditions. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 16021609.
  • Theurillat, J.-P. & Guisan, A. (2001) Potential impact of climate change on vegetation in the European Alps: a review. Climatic Change, 50, 77109.
  • Tranquillini, W. (1979) Physical Ecology of the Alpine Timberline. Springer, Berlin.
  • Wardle, P. (1985) New Zealand timberlines. 3. A synthesis. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 23, 263271.
  • Woodward, F.I. (1987) Climate and Plant Distribution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.