SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anonymous (1997) Fältinstruktion för Standårtskarteringen. Institutionen för skoglig marklära, SLU, Uppsala (in Swedish).
  • Anonymous (1999) Handbok för Miljöövervakning. Programområde Skogsmark. Delprogram Extensiv övervakning av Skogsbiotopers (-bestånds) innehåll Med Inriktning mot Biologisk Mångfald. Available at http://www.naturvardsverket.se (in Swedish).
  • Barkman, J.J. (1958) Phytosociology and Ecology of Cryptogamic Epiphytes. Van Gorcum, Assen.
  • Bohrer, G., Nathan, R. & Volis, S. (2005) Effects of long-distance dispersal for metapopulation survival and genetic structure at ecological time and spatial scales. Journal of Ecology, 93, 10291040.
  • Bossuyt, B. & Honnay, O. (2006) Interactions between plant life span, seed dispersal capacity and fecundity determine metapopulation viability in a dynamic landscape. Landscape Ecology, 21, 11951205.
  • Chase, J.M., Amarasekare, P., Cottenie, K., Gonzales, A., Holt, R.D., Holyoak, M. et al . (2005) Competing theories for competitive metacommunties. Metacommunities (eds M.Holyoak, M.A.Leibold & R.D.Holt), pp. 335354. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • Clark, J.S., Silman, M., Kern, R., Macklin, E. & HilleRisLambers, J. (1999) Seed dispersal near and far: patterns across temperate and tropical forests. Ecology, 80, 14751494.
  • Dettki, H. & Esseen, P.-A. (2003) Modelling long-term effects of forest management on epiphytic lichens in northern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 175, 223238.
  • Dieckmann, U., O’Hara, B. & Weisser, W. (1999) The evolutionary ecology of dispersal. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 8890.
  • During, H.J. (1992) Ecological classification of bryophytes and lichens. Bryophytes and Lichens in a Changing Environment (eds J.W.Bates & A.M.Farmer), pp. 131. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • During, H.J. (2007) Relations between clonal growth, reproduction and breeding system in the bryophytes of Belgium and The Netherlands. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft, 131, 133145.
  • Eckert, C.G. (2002) The loss of sex in clonal plants. Evolutionary Ecology, 15, 501520.
  • Ellis, A.M., Lounibos, L.P. & Holyoak, M. (2006) Evaluating the long-term metacommunity dynamics of tree hole mosquitoes. Ecology, 87, 25822590.
  • Ellis, C.J. & Coppins, B.J. (2007) 19th century woodland structure controls stand-scale epiphyte diversity in present-day Scotland. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 8491.
  • Gavrilets, S. (2004) Speciation in metapopulations. Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution of Metapopulations (eds I.Hanski. & O.E.Gaggiotti), pp. 275303. Elsevier, San Diego.
  • Gonzales, A., Lawton, J.H., Gilbert, F.S., Blackburn, T.M. & Evans, F.I. (1998) Metapopulation dynamics, abundance, and distribution in a microecosystem. Science, 281, 20452047.
  • Gonzáles-Mancebo, J.M. & During, H.J. (1997) Reproductive effort of some mosses with different life-history strategies growing epiphytically in Salix forest in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands. Lindbergia, 22, 3642.
  • Gustafsson, L. & Eriksson, I. (1995) Factors of importance for the epiphytic vegetation of aspen Populus tremula with special emphasis on bark chemistry and soil chemistry. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32, 412424.
  • Hanski, I. (1999) Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Holt, R.D., Holyoak, M. & Leibold, M.A. (2005) Future directions in metacommunity ecology. Metacommunities (eds M.Holyoak, M.A.Leibold & R.D.Holt), pp. 465489. The University of Chicago press, Chicago and London.
  • Holyoak, M., Leibold, M.A., Mouquet, N.M., Holt, R.D. & Hoopes, M.F. (2005) Metacommunities: A framework for large-scale community ecology. Metacommunities (eds M.Holyoak, M.A.Leibold & R.D.Holt), pp. 131. The University of Chicago press, Chicago and London.
  • Hubbell, S.P. (2001) The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Hudson, D.J. (1971) Interval estimation from the likelihood function. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 33, 256262.
  • Hutsemekers, V., Dopagne, C. & Vanderpoorten, A. (2008) How far and fast do bryophytes travel at the landscape scale? Diversity and distributions, 14, 483492.
  • Johst, K., Brandl, R. & Eber, S. (2002) Metapopulation persistence in dynamic landscapes: the role of dispersal distance. Oikos, 98, 263270.
  • Jones, F.A. & Muller-Landau, H.C. (2008) Measuring long-distance seed dispersal in complex natural environments: an evaluation and integration of classical and genetic methods. Journal of Ecology, 96, 642652.
  • Kalisz, S., Vogler, D.W. & Hanley, K.M. (2004) Context-dependent autonomous self-fertilization yields reproductive assurance and mixed mating. Nature, 430, 884887.
  • Keymer, J.E., Marquet, P.A., Velasco-Hernández, J.X. & Levin, S.A. (2000) Extinction thresholds and metapopulation persistence in dynamic landscapes. American Naturalist, 156, 478494.
  • Kimmerer, R.W. (1994) Ecological consequences of sexual versus asexual reproduction in Dicranum flagellare and Tetraphis pellucida. The Bryologist, 97, 2025.
  • Laaka-Lindberg, S., Hedderson, T.A. & Longton, R.E. (2000) Rarity and reproductive characters in the British hepatic flora. Lindbergia, 25, 7884.
  • Laaka-Lindberg, S., Korpelainen, H. & Pohjama, M. (2003) Dispersal of asexual propagules in bryophytes. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 93, 319330.
  • Laaka-Lindberg, S., Korpelainen, H. & Pohjama, M. (2006) Spatial distribution of epixylic hepatics in relation to substrate in a boreal old-growth forest. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 100, 311323.
  • Laurance, W.F. & Yensen, E. (1991) Predicting the impacts of edge effects in fragmented landscapes. Biological Conservation, 55, 7792.
  • Löbel, S., Snäll, T. & Rydin, H. (2006a) Metapopulation processes in epiphytes inferred from patterns of regional distribution and local abundance in fragmented forest landscapes. Journal of Ecology, 94, 856868.
  • Löbel, S., Snäll, T. & Rydin, H. (2006b) Species richness patterns and metapopulation processes – evidence from epiphyte communities in boreo-nemoral forests. Ecography, 29, 169182.
  • Longton, R.E. (1992) Reproduction and rarity in British mosses. Biological Conservation, 59, 8998.
  • Longton, R.E. (1994) Reproductive biology in bryophytes. The challenge and the opportunities. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, 76, 159172.
  • Matlack, G.R. (2005) Slow plants in a fast forest: local dispersal as a predictor of species frequencies in a dynamic landscape. Journal of Ecology, 93, 5059.
  • McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J.A. (1989) Generalised Linear Models. Chapman and Hall/CRC, New York.
  • Moles, A.T. & Westoby, M. (2004) Seedling survival and seed size: a synthesis of the literature. Journal of Ecology, 92, 372383.
  • Moles, A.T. & Westoby, M. (2006) Seed size and plant strategy across the whole life cycle. Oikos, 113, 91105.
  • Mouillot, D. (2007) Niche-assembly vs. dispersal-assembly rules in coastal fish metacommunties: implications for management of biodiversity in brackish lagoons. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 760767.
  • Mouquet, N., Hoopes, M.F. & Amarasekare, P. (2005) The world is patchy and heterogeneous! Trade-off and source-sink dynamics in competitive metacommunities. Metacommunities (eds M.Holyoak, M.A.Leibold & R.D.Holt), pp. 335354. The University of Chicago press, Chicago and London.
  • Ozinga, W.A., Bekker, R.M., Schaminée, J.H.J. & Van Groenendael, J.M. (2004) Dispersal potential in plant communities depends on environmental conditions. Journal of Ecology, 92, 767777.
  • Pharo, E.J. & Zartman, C.E. (2007) Bryophytes in a changing landscape: the hierarchial effects of habitat fragmentation on ecological and evolutionary processes. Biological Conservation, 135, 315325.
  • Pohjamo, M. & Laaka-Lindberg, S. (2004) Demographic structure of a leafy epixylic hepatic Anastrophyllum hellerianum (Nees ex Lindenb.) R.M. Schust. Plant Ecology, 173, 7381.
  • Pohjamo, M., Laaka-Lindberg, S., Ovaskainen, O. & Korpelainen, H. (2006) Dispersal potential of spores and asexual diaspores in the epixylic hepatic Anastrophyllum hellerianum. Evolutionary Ecology, 20, 415430.
  • R Development Core Team (2005) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Rasheed, M.A. (2004) Recovery and succession in a multi-species tropical seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the role of sexual and asexual reproduction. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 310, 1345.
  • Ribeiro, Jr, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001) geoR: a package for geostatistical analysis. R-News, 1, 1518.
  • Scarlett, P. & O’Hare, M. (2006) Community structure of in-stream bryophytes in English and Welsh rivers. Hydrobiologia, 553, 143152.
  • Silvertown, J. (2008) The evolutionary maintenance of sexual reproduction: evidence from the ecological distribution of asexual reproduction in clonal plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 169, 157168.
  • Snäll, T., Ehrlén, J. & Rydin, H. (2005) Colonization–extinction dynamics of an epiphyte metapopulation in a dynamic landscape. Ecology, 86, 106115.
  • Snäll, T., Fogelqvist, J., Ribeiro, Jr, P.J. & Lascoux, M. (2004a) Spatial genetic structure in two congeneric epiphytes with different dispersal strategies analysed by three different methods. Molecular Ecology, 13, 21092119.
  • Snäll, T., Hagström, A., Rudolphi, J. & Rydin, H. (2004b) Distribution pattern of the epiphyte Neckera pennata on three spatial scales – importance of past landscape structure, connectivity, and local conditions. Ecography, 27, 757766.
  • Snäll, T., O’Hara, R.B. & Arjas, E. (2007) A mathematical and statistical framework for modelling dispersal. Oikos, 116, 966974.
  • Snäll, T., Ribeiro, Jr, P.J. & Rydin, H. (2003) Spatial occurrence and colonizations in patch-tracking metapopulations: local conditions versus dispersal. Oikos, 103, 566578.
  • Tackenberg, O., Poschlod, P. & Bonn, S. (2003) Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species. Ecological Monographs, 73, 191205.
  • Urban, M.C. & Skelly, D.K. (2006) Evolving metacommunities: toward an evolutionary perspective on metacommunities. Ecology, 87, 16161626.
  • Van de Meuter, F., De Meester, L. & Stoks, R. (2007) Metacommunity structure of pond macroinverterbrates: effects of dispersal mode and generation time. Ecology, 88, 16871695.
  • Vanschoenwinkel, B., De Vries, C., Seaman, M. & Brendonck, L. (2007) The role of metacommunity processes in shaping invertebrate rock pool communities along a dispersal gradient. Oikos, 116, 12551266.
  • Venables, W.N. & Ripley, B.D. (1999) Modern Applied Statistics with S-PLUS. Springer, Berlin.
  • Virtanen, R. & Oksanen, J. (2007) The effects of habitat connectivity on cryptogam richness in boulder metacommunity. Biological Conservation, 135, 415422.
  • Wagner, H.H., Werth, S., Kalwij, J.M., Bolli, J.C. & Scheidegger, C. (2006) Modelling forest recolonization by an epiphytic lichen using a landscape genetic approach. Landscape Ecology, 21, 849865.
  • Wiklund, K. & Rydin, H. (2004) Colony expansion of Neckera pennata: modelled growth rate and effect of microhabitat, competition, and precipitation. The Bryologist, 107, 293301.
  • Zartman, C.E. & Shaw, A.J. (2006) Metapopulation extinction tresholds in rain forest remnants. American Naturalist, 167, 177189.