SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aerts, R., Boot, R.G.A. & Van Der Aart, P.J.M. (1991) The relation between above- and belowground biomass allocation patterns and competitive ability. Oecologia, 87, 551559.
  • Aerts, R., Maes, W., November, E., Behailu, M., Poesen, J., Deckers, J. et al. (2006a) Surface runoff and seed trapping efficiency of shrubs in a regenerating semiarid woodland in northern Ethiopia. Catena, 65, 6170.
  • Aerts, R., Maes, W., November, E., Negussie, A., Hermy, M. & Muys, B. (2006b) Restoring dy Afromontane forest using bird and nurse plant effects: direct sowing of Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata seeds. Forest Ecology and Management, 230, 2331.
  • Aide, T.M. & Cavelier, J. (1994) Barriers to lowland tropical forest restoration in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Restoration Ecology, 2, 219229.
  • Armas, C. & Pugnaire, F.I. (2005) Plant interactions govern population dynamics in a semi-arid plant community. Journal of Ecology, 93, 978989.
  • Armas, C. & Pugnaire, F.I. (2009) Ontogenetic shifts in interactions of two dominant shrub species in a semi-arid coastal sand dune system. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20, 535546.
  • Ashton, P.M.S., Gamage, S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. & Gunatilleke, C.V.S. (1997) Restoration of Sri Lankan rainforest: ussing Caribbean pine Pinus caribaea as a nurse for establishing late-successional tree species. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 915925.
  • Bertness, M.D. & Callaway, R.M. (1994) Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 191193.
  • Brooker, R.W. & Callaghan, T.V. (1998) The balance between positive and negative plant interactions and its relationship to environmental gradients: a model. Oikos, 81, 196207.
  • Brooker, R.W., Maestre, F.T., Callaway, R.M., Lortie, C.L., Cavieres, L.A., Kunstler, G. et al. (2008) Facilitation in plant communities: the past, the present, and the future. Journal of Ecology, 96, 1834.
  • Brown, S. & Lugo, A.E. (1994) Rehabilitation of tropical lands: a key to sustaining development. Restoration Ecology, 2, 97111.
  • Byers, J.E., Cuddington, K., Jones, C.G., Talley, T.S., Hastings, A., Lambrinos, J.G. et al. (2006) Using ecosystem engineers to restore ecological systems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21, 493500.
  • Cabin, R.J., Weller, S.G., Lorence, D.H., Cordell, S., Hadway, L.J., Montgomery, R. et al. (2002) Effects of light, alien grass, and native species additions on Hawaiian dry forest restoration. Ecological Applications, 12, 15951610.
  • Caldwell, M.M. & Richards, H.J. (1986) Competing root systems: morphology and models of absorption. On the Economy of Plant Form and Function (ed. T.J.Givnish), pp. 251273. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Callaway, R.M. (2007) Positive Interactions and Interdependence in Plant Communities. Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Callaway, R.M. & Walker, L.R. (1997) Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities. Ecology, 78, 19581965.
  • Callaway, R.M., DeLucia, E.H., Moore, D., Nowak, R. & Schlesinger, W.H. (1996) Competition and facilitation: contrasting effects of Artemisia tridentata on desert vs montane pines. Ecology, 77, 21302141.
  • Castro, J., Zamora, R. & Hódar, J.H. (2006) Restoring Quercus pyrenaica forests using pioneer shrubs as nurse plants. Applied Vegetation Science, 9, 137142.
  • Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hódar, J.A. & Gómez, J.M. (2002) Use of shrubs as nurse plants: a new technique for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains. Restoration Ecology, 10, 297305.
  • Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hódar, J.A., Gómez, J.M. & Gómez-Aparicio, L. (2004) Benefits of using shrubs as nurse plants for reforestation in Mediterranean mountains: a 4-year study. Restoration Ecology, 12, 352358.
  • Certini, G. (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia, 143, 110.
  • Choi, Y.D. & Wali, M.K. (1995) The role of Panicum virgatum (switch grass) in the revegetation of iron-mine tailings in northern New York. Restoration Ecology, 3, 123132.
  • Choi, Y.D., Temperton, V.M., Allen, E.B., Grootjans, A.P., Halassy, M., Hobbs, R.J. et al. (2008) Ecological restoration for future sustainability in a changing environment. Ecoscience, 15, 5364.
  • Choler, P., Michalet, R. & Callaway, R.M. (2001) Facilitation and competition on gradients in alpine plant communities. Ecology, 82, 32953308.
  • Chu, C.J., Wang, Y.S., Maestre, F.T. & Wang, G. (2008) On the relevance of facilitation in alpine meadow communities: an experimental assessment with multiple species differing in their ecological optimum. Acta Oecologica, 33, 108113.
  • Clark, C.J., Poulsen, J.R., Levey, D.J. & Osenberg, C.W. (2007) Are plant populations seed limited? A critique and meta-analysis of seed addition experiments. The American Naturalist, 170, 28142.
  • Clewell, A.F. & Lea, R. (1990) Creation and restoration of forested wetland vegetation in the southeastern United States. Wetland Creation and Restoration: the Status of the Science (eds J.A.Kusler & M.E.Kentula), pp. 195231. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Connell, J.H. & Slatyer, R.O. (1977) Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. The American Naturalist, 111, 11191144.
  • Coomes, D.A. & Allen, R.B. (2007) Effects of size, competition and altitude on tree growth. Journal of Ecology, 95, 10841097.
  • Davy, A.J. (2002) Establishment and manipulation of plant populations and communities in terrestrial systems. Handbook of Ecological Restoration, Vol. 1 (eds M.R.Perrow & A.J.Davy), pp. 223241. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • De Steven, D. (1991a) Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology, 72, 10661075.
  • De Steven, D. (1991b) Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology, 72, 10761088.
  • Devine, W.D., Harrington, C.A. & Leonard, L.P. (2007) Post-planting treatments increase growth of Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. Ex hook.) seedlings. Restoration Ecology, 15, 212222.
  • Dulohery, C.J., Kolka, R.K. & McKevlin, M.R. (2000) Effects of a willow overstory on planted seedlings in a bottomland restoration. Ecological Engineering, 15, S57S66.
  • Duncan, R.S. & Chapman, C.A. (2003a) Tree-shrub interactions during early secondary forest succession in Uganda. Restoration Ecology, 11, 198207.
  • Duncan, R.S. & Chapman, C.A. (2003b) Consequences of plantation harvest during tropical forest restoration in Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 173, 235250.
  • Egerova, J., Proffitt, C.E. & Travis, S.E. (2003) Facilitation of survival and growth of Baccharis halimifolia L. by Spartina alterniflora Loisel. in a created Louisiana salt marsh. Wetlands, 23, 250256.
  • Feyera, S., Beck, E. & Luttge, U. (2002) Exotic trees as nurse-trees for the regeneration of natural tropical forests. Trees Structure and Function, 16, 245249.
  • Flores, J. & Jurado, E. (2003) Are nurse–protégé interactions more common among plants from arid environments? Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 911916.
  • Foster, B.L. (2002) Competition, facilitation, and the distribution of Schizachyrium scoparium along a topographic-productivity gradient. Ecoscience, 9, 355363.
  • Gates, S. (2002) Review of methodology of quantitative reviews using meta-analysis in ecology. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 547557.
  • Gillespie, I.G. & Allen, E.B. (2004) Fire and competition in a southern California grassland: impacts on the rare forb Erodium macrophyllum. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 643652.
  • Goldberg, D.E., Rajaniemi, T., Gurevitch, J. & Stewart-Oaten, A. (1999) Empirical approaches to quantifying interaction intensity: competition and facilitation along productivity gradients. Ecology, 80, 11181131.
  • Goldberg, D.E., Turkington, R., Olsvig-Whittaker, L. & Dyer, A.R. (2001) Density dependence in an annual plant community: variation among life history stages. Ecological Monographs, 71, 423446.
  • Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R., Gómez, J.M., Hódar, J.A., Castro, J. & Baraza, E. (2004) Applying plant facilitation to forest restoration: a meta-analysis of the use of shrubs as nurse plants. Ecological Applications, 14, 11281138.
  • Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zavala, M.A., Bonet, F.A. & Zamora, R. (2009) Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along gradients of climatic conditions, stand density and distance to seed sources. Ecological Applications, in press.
  • Griscom, H.P., Ashton, P.M.S. & Berlyn, G.P. (2005) Seedling survival and growth of native tree species in pastures: implications for dry tropical forest rehabilitation in central Panama. Forest Ecology and Management, 218, 306318.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1977) The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Reviews, 52, 107145.
  • Gurevitch, J. & Hedges, L.V. (1999) Statistical issues in conducting ecological meta-analyses. Ecology, 80, 11421149.
  • Gurevitch, J. & Hedges, L.V. (2001) Meta-analysis: combining the results of independent experiments. Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments (eds S.M.Scheiner & J.Gurevitch), pp. 347369. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Halpern, B.S., Silliman, B.R., Olden, J.D., Bruno, J.P. & Bertness, M.D. (2007) Incorporating positive interactions in aquatic restoration and conservation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 153160.
  • Harrington, G.N. & Johns, G.G. (1990) Herbaceous biomass in a eucalyptus-savanna woodland after removing trees and/or shrubs. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 775787.
  • Hastwell, G.T. & Facelli, J.M. (2003) Differing effects of shade-induced facilitation on growth and survival during the establishment of a chenopod shrub. Journal of Ecology, 91, 941950.
  • Hedges, L.V., Gurevitch, J. & Curtis, P. (1999) The meta-analysis using response ratios in experimental ecology. Ecology, 80, 11501156.
  • Hobbs, R.J. & Cramer, V.A. (2008) Restoration ecology: interventionist approaches for restoring and maintaining ecosystem function in the face of rapid environmental change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33, 3961.
  • Holl, K.D. (1998) Effects of above- and below-ground competition of shrubs and grass on Calophyllum brasiliense (Camb.) seedling growth in abandoned tropical pasture. Forest Ecology and Management, 109, 187195.
  • Holl, K.D. (1999) Factors limiting tropical rain forest regeneration in abandoned pasture: seed rain, seed germination, microclimate, and soil. Biotropica, 31, 229242.
  • Holl, K.D., Loik, M.E., Lin, E.H.V. & Samuels, I.A. (2000) Tropical montane forest restoration in Costa Rica: overcoming barriers to dispersal and establishment. Restoration Ecology, 8, 339349.
  • Hovick, S.M. & Reinartz, J.A. (2007) Restoring forest in wetlands dominated by reed canarygrass: the effects of pre-planting treatments on early survival of planted stock. Wetlands, 27, 2439.
  • Howe, H.F. & Miriti, M.N. (2004) When seed dispersal matters. BioScience, 54, 651660.
  • Huber-Sannwald, E. & Pyke, D.A. (2005) Establishing native grasses in a big sagebrush-dominated site: an intermediate restoration step. Restoration Ecology, 13, 292301.
  • Hurt, G.C. & Pacala, S.W. (1995) The consequences of recruitment limitation: reconciling chance, history and competitive differences between plants. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 176, 112.
  • Hyatt, L.A., Rosenberg, M.S., Howard, T.G., Bole, G., Fang, W., Anastasia, J. et al. (2003) The distance prediction of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis: a meta-analysis. Oikos, 103, 590602.
  • Jackson, R.B., Canadell, J., Ehleringer, J.R., Mooney, H.A., Sala, O.E. & Schulze, E.D. (1996) A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia, 108, 389411.
  • Jones, R.B. (1998) TechDig, Version 2.0d. Mundelein, IL.
  • Jordan, W.R., III (1988) Ecological restoration. Biodiversity (eds E.O.Wilson & E.M.Peter), pp. 311316. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • Karst, J., Marczak, L., Jones, M.D. & Turkington, R. (2008) The mutualism-parasitism continuum in ectomycorrhizas: a quantitative assessment using meta-analysis. Ecology, 89, 10321042.
  • King, E.G. (2008) Facilitative effects of Aloe secundiflora shrubs in degraded semi-arid rangelands in Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments, 72, 358369.
  • Kitajima, K. & Fenner, M. (2000) Seedling regeneration ecology. Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities, 2nd edn (ed. M.Fenner), pp. 331360. CAB International, Wallingford.
  • Köchy, M. & Wilson, S.D. (2000) Competitive effects of shrubs and grasses in prairie. Oikos, 91, 385395.
  • Liancourt, P., Callaway, R.M. & Michalet, R. (2005) Stress tolerance and competitive-response ability determine the outcome of biotic interactions. Ecology, 86, 16111618.
  • Lortie, C.J. & Callaway, R.M. (2006) Re-analysis of meta-analysis: support for the stress-gradient hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 94, 716.
  • Maestre, F.T., Valladares, F. & Reynolds, J.F. (2005) Is the change of plant-plant interactions with abiotic stress predictable? A meta-analysis of field results in arid environments. Journal of Ecology, 93, 748757.
  • Maestre, F.T., Valladares, F. & Reynolds, J.F. (2006a) The stress-gradient hypothesis does not fit all relationships between plant-plant interactions and abiotic stress: further insights from arid environments. Journal of Ecology, 94, 1722.
  • Maestre, F.T., Bautista, S., Cortina, J. & Bellot, J. (2001) Potential of using facilitation by grasses to establish shrubs on a semiarid degraded steppe. Ecological Applications, 11, 16411655.
  • Maestre, F.T., Callaway, R.M., Valladares, F. & Lortie, C.J. (2009) Refining the stress-gradient hypothesis for competition and facilitation in plant communities. Journal of Ecology, 97, 199205.
  • McKee, K.L., Rooth, J.E. & Feller, I.C. (2007) Mangrove recruitment after forest disturbance is facilitated by herbaceous species in the caribbean. Ecological Applications, 17, 16781693.
  • McLeod, K.W., Reed, M.R. & Wike, L.D. (2001) Elevation, competition control, and species affect bottomland forest restoration. Wetlands, 20, 162168.
  • McNamara, S., Tinh, D.V., Erskine, P.D., Lamb, D., Yates, D. & Brown, S. (2006) Rehabilitating degraded forest land in central Vietnam with mixed native species plantings. Forest Ecology and Management, 233, 358365.
  • Mendoza, I., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R. & Matías, L. (2009) Recruitment limitation of forest communities in a degraded Mediterranean landscape. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20, 367376.
  • Miriti, M.N. (2006) Ontogenetic shift from facilitation to competition in a desert shrub. Journal of Ecology, 94, 973979.
  • Morris, W.F., Hufbauer, R.A., Agrawal, A.A., Bever, J.D., Borowicz, V.A., Gilbert, G.S. et al. (2007) Direct and interactive effects of enemies and mutualists on plant performance: a meta-analysis. Ecology, 88, 10211029.
  • Otsamo, R. (1998) Removal of Acacia mangium overstorey increased growth of underplanted Anisoptera marginata (Dipterocarpaceae) on an Imperata cylindrica grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. New Forests, 16, 7180.
  • Padilla, F.M. & Pugnaire, F.I. (2006) The role of nurse plants in the restoration of degraded environments. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 196202.
  • Padilla, F.M., Ortega, R., Sánchez, J. & Pugnaire, F.I. (2009) Rethinking species selection for restoration of arid shrublands. Basic and Applied Ecology, in press. doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2009.03.003.
  • Parrotta, J.A., Turnbull, J.W. & Jones, N. (1997) Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. Forest Ecology and Management, 99, 17.
  • Pausas, J.G., Blade, C., Valdecantos, A., Seva, J.P., Fuentes, D., Alloza, J.A. et al. (2004) Pines and oaks in the restoration of Mediterranean landscapes of Spain: new perspectives for an old practice: a review. Plant Ecology, 171, 209220.
  • Perrow, M.R. & Davy, A.J. (2002) Handbook of Ecological Restoration, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Puerta-Piñero, C., Gómez, J.M. & Valladares, F. (2007) Irradiance and oak seedling survival and growth in a heterogeneous environment. Forest Ecology and Management, 242, 462469.
  • Pyke, D.A. & Archer, S. (1991) Plant-plant interactions affecting plant establishment and persistence on revegetated rangeland. Journal of Range Management, 44, 550557.
  • Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Roy, D.B., Warman, L.I.Z., Walker, K.J. & Rothery, P. (2003) Plant traits as predictors of performance in ecological restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 6577.
  • Quero, J.L., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R. & Maestre, F.T. (2008) Shifts in the regeneration niche of an endangered tree (Acer opalus ssp. granatense) during ontogeny. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 635644.
  • Rey Benayas, J.M., Navarro, J., Espigares, T., Nicolau, J.M. & Zavala, M.A. (2005) Effects of artificial shading and weed mowing in reforestation of Mediterranean abandoned cropland with contrasting Quercus species. Forest Ecology and Management, 212, 302314.
  • Rosenberg, M.S., Adams, D.C. & Gurevitch, J. (2000) Metawin: Statistical Software for Meta-Analysis, Version 2. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.
  • Rosenthal, R. (1979) The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 638641.
  • Savill, P., Evans, J., Auclair, D. & Falck, J. (1997) Plantation Silviculture in Europe. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Schupp, E.W. (2007) Suitable sites for dispersal are context dependent. Seed Dispersal: Theory and Its Application in a Changing World (eds A.J.Dennis, R.J.Green, E.W.Schupp & D.A.Westcott), pp. 445462. CAB International, Wallingford.
  • Siles, G. (2008) Hacia nuevos modelos de restauración forestal basados en dinámica de vegetación mediterránea: aplicación a áreas degradadas por fuego. PhD Thesis, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.
  • Siles, G., Rey, P.J., Alcántara, J.M. & Ramírez, J.M. (2008) Assessing the long-term contribution of nurse plants to restoration of Mediterranean forests through Markovian models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 17901798.
  • Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration International, Tucson. Available at: http://www.ser.org.
  • Su, Y.Z. & Zhao, H.F. (2003) Soil properties and plant species in an age sequence of Caragana microphylla plantations in the Horqin Sandy Land, north China. Ecological Engineering, 20, 223235.
  • Suding, K.N. & Goldberg, D.E. (1999) Variation in the effects of vegetation and litter on recruitment across productivity gradients. Journal of Ecology, 87, 436449.
  • Sun, D. & Dickinson, G.R. (1996) The competition effect of Brachiaria decumbens on the early growth of direct-seeded trees of Alphitonia petriei in tropical north Australia. Biotropica, 28, 272276.
  • Temperton, V.M. & Hobbs, R.J. (2004) The search for ecological assembly rules and its relevance to restoration ecology. Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology: Bridging the Gap bewteen Theory and Practice (eds V.M.Temperton, R.J.Hobbs, T.Nuttle & S.Halle), pp. 3454. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Valiente-Banuet, A., Vital Rumebe, A., Verdú, M. & Callaway, R.M. (2006) Modern Quaternary plant lineages promote diversity through facilitation of ancient Tertiary lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 1681216817.
  • Vallauri, D.R., Aronson, J. & Barbero, M. (2002) An analysis of forest restoration 120 years after reforestation on badlands in the Southwestern Alps. Restoration Ecology, 10, 1626.
  • Van Andel, J. & Aronson, J. (2006) Restoration Ecology: The New Frontier. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Van Wieren, S.E. (2002) Populations: re-introductions. Restoration Ecology (eds J.Van Andel & J.Aronson), pp. 8292. Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Verdú, M. & Traveset, A. (2005) Early emergence enhances plant fitness: a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis. Ecology, 86, 13851394.
  • Vieira, I.C.G., Uhl, C. & Nepstad, D. (1994) The role of the shrub Cordia multispicata Cham. as a “succession facilitator” in an abandoned pasture, Paragominas, Amazônia. Vegetatio, 115, 9199.
  • Walker, L.R. & Powell, E.A. (1999) Regeneration of the Mauna Kea silversword Argyroxiphium sandwicense (Asteraceae) in Hawaii. Biological Conservation, 89, 6070.
  • Walker, L.R., Walker, J. & Hobbs, R.J. (2007). Linking Restoration Ecology and Ecological Succession. Springer, New York.
  • Whisenant, S.G. (1999) Repairing Damaged Wildlands. A Process-orientated, Landscape-scale Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Whisenant, S.G. (2002) Manipulating the physical environment in terrestrial systems. Handbook of Ecological Restoration, Vol. 1 (eds M.R.Perrow & A.J.Davy), pp. 83105. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Xiong, S. & Nilsson, C. (1999) The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ecology, 87, 984994.