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Appendix S1. Example MatLab code for calculating the elasticities and sensitivities of conditional vital rates for survival, growth and retrogression using the Symbolic Toolbox for Aristida bipartita.

Table S1. Species in this study and the references from which demographic matrices were extracted.

Table S2. Life-history traits associated with parity and time to reproduction.

Table S3. Correlations among the vital rates for 204 terrestrial plants, with phylogeny in the model.

Table S4. Correlations among the vital rate elasticities for 204 terrestrial plants, with phylogeny in the model.

Table S5. Correlations among the vital rate sensitivities for 204 terrestrial plants, with phylogeny in the model.

Table S6. GLS details for the relationships among reproduction (iteroparity, age at first reproduction) and life-history characteristics.

Table S7. Generalized least-squares details for the relationships among vital rates.

Table S8. Generalized least-squares details for the relationships among elasticities.

Table S9. Generalized least-squares details for the relationships among sensitivities.

Table S10. ancova results for weighted total fecundity as a function of habitat and age of first reproduction.

Figure S1. Phylogeny used in this study to compare the demography of 204 terrestrial plant species.

Figure S2. Coefficients of variation (CV) for fecundity (into the first non-seed and non-dormant stage) and for survival (excluding the seed bank).

Figure S3. Though there was not a significant interaction between life form and sensitivity of survival on CV of survival, the patterns do suggest that different life forms might have different CV of survival.

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