SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ban, Y., Xu, H.C., Bergeron, Y. & Kneeshaw, D.D. (1998) Gap regeneration of shade-intolerant Larix gmelini in old-growth boreal forests of northeastern China. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 529536.
  • Bartemucci, P., Coates, K.D., Harper, K.A. & Wright, E.F. (2002) Gap disturbances in northern old-growth forests of British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13, 685696.
  • Baskerville, G.L. (1975) Spruce budworm: super silviculturalist. Forestry Chronicle, 51, 138140.
  • Bergeron, Y. (2000) Species and stand dynamics in the mixed woods of Québec’s southern boreal forest. Ecology, 81, 15001516.
  • Bergeron, Y. & Archambault, S. (1993) Decreasing frequency of forest fires in the southern boreal zone of Quebec and its relation to global warming since the end of the ‘Little Ice Age’. The Holocene, 3, 225259.
  • Bergeron, Y. & Dansereau, P.R. (1993) Predicting forest composition under different fire cycles in the southeastern boreal forest of Canada. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 827832.
  • Bescond, H. (2002) Reconstitution de l’historique de l’exploitation forestière sur le territoire de la forêt d’enseignement et de recherche du Lac Duparquet au cours du 20ème siècle et influence sur l’évolution des peuplements forestiers. Mémoire de Maîtrise en Biologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, 77 pp.
  • Bouchard, M., Kneeshaw, D.D. & Bergeron, Y. (2006) Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixed-wood forests. Ecology, 87, 23192329.
  • Brokaw, N.V.L. (1985) Gap-phase regeneration in a tropical forest. Ecology, 66, 682687.
  • Campbell, E.M., MacLean, D. & Bergeron, Y. (2008) The severity of budworm-caused growth reductions in balsam fir/spruce stands varies with the hardwood content of surrounding forest landscapes. Forest Science, 54, 195205.
  • Canham, C.D. (1988) Growth and canopy architecture of shade-tolerant trees: response to canopy gaps. Ecology, 69, 786795.
  • Canham, C.D., Denslow, J.S., Platt, W.J., Runkle, J.R., Spies, T.A. & White, P.S. (1990) Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 620631.
  • Coops, N.C., Wulder, M.A., Culvenor, D.S. & St-Onge, B. (2004) Comparison of forest attributes extracted from fine spatial resolution multispectral and lidar data. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 30, 855866.
  • Danserau, P. & Bergeron, Y. (1993) Fire history in the southern part of the boreal forest of northwestern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 2532.
  • D’Aoust, V., Kneeshaw, D.D. & Bergeron, Y. (2004) Characterisation of canopy openness before and after a spruce budworm outbreak in the southern boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, 339353.
  • Denslow, J.S. & Spies, T. (1990) Canopy gaps in forest ecosystems: an introduction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 619.
  • Environment Canada (1993) Canadian Climatic Normals 1961–90. Canadian Climatic Program, Atmospheric Environmental Service, Downsview, ON, Canada.
  • Flannigan, M.D. & Bergeron, Y. (1998) Possible role of disturbance in shaping the northern distribution of Pinus resinosa. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 477482.
  • Foster, J.R. & Reiners, W.A. (1986) Size distribution ans expansion of canopy gaps in a northern Appalacian spruce-fir forest. Vegetatio, 68, 109114.
  • Frelich, L.E. & Reich, P.B. (1995) Spatial patterns and succession in Minnesota southern-boreal forest. Ecological Monographs, 65, 325346.
  • Fujita, T., Itaya, A., Miura, M., Manabe, T. & Yamamoto, S. (2003) Canopy structure in temperate old-growth evergreen forest analyzed by using aerial photographs. Plant Ecology, 168, 2329.
  • Ghent, A.W., Fraser, D.A. & Thomas, J.B. (1957) Studies of regeneration in forest stands devastated by the spruce budworm. I. Evidence of trends in forest succession during the first decade following budworm devastation. Forest Science, 3, 184208.
  • Hill, S.B., Mallik, A.U. & Chen, H.Y. (2005) Canopy gap disturbances and succession in trempling aspen dominated stands in northeastern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35, 19421951.
  • Kneeshaw, D.D. & Bergeron, Y. (1998) Canopy characteristics and tree replacement in the southern boreal forest. Ecology, 79, 783794.
  • Kneeshaw, D.D., Kobe, R.K., Coates, K.D. & Messier, C. (2006) Sapling size influences shade tolerance ranking among southern boreal tree species. Journal of Ecology, 94, 471480.
  • Lefsky, M.A., Cohen, W.B., Parker, G.G. & Harding, D.J. (2002) LIDAR remote sensing for ecosystem studies. BioScience, 52, 930.
  • Lertzman, K.P. & Krebs, C.J. (1991) Gap-phase structure of a subalpine old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21, 17301741.
  • Lertzman, K.P., Sutherland, G.D., Inselberg, A. & Saunders, S.C. (1996) Canopy gaps and the landscape mosaic in a coastal temperate rain forest. Ecology, 77, 12541270.
  • Liu, K.-B. (1990) Holocene paleoecology of the boreal forest and Great Lakes-St Lawrence Forest in northern Ontario. Ecological Monographs, 60, 179212.
  • MacLean, D.A. (1988) Effects of spruce budworm outbreaks on vegetation, structure and succession of balsam fir forests on Cape Breton Island, Canada. Plant Form and Vegetation Structure (eds M.J.A.Werger, P.J.M.Van Der Aart, H.J.During & J.T.A.Verhoeven), pp. 253261. Academic Publishing, The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Van Der Meer, P.J. & Bongers, F. (1996) Formation and closure of canopy gaps in the rain forest at Nouragues, French Guiana. Vegetatio, 126, 167179.
  • Morin, H., Laprise, D. & Bergeron, Y. (1993) Chronology of spruce budworm outbreaks near Lake Duparquet, Abitibi region, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 14971506.
  • Nagel, T.A. & Svoboda, M. (2008) Gap disturbances in an old-growth Fagus-Abies forest in the Dinaric Mountains, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 27282737.
  • Oliver, C.D. & Larson, B.C. (1996) Forest Stand Dynamics. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
  • Parish, R. & Antos, J.A. (2004) Structure and dynamics of an ancient montane forest in coastal British Columbia. Oecologia, 141, 562576.
  • Quine, C.P. & Malcom, D.C. (2007) Wind-driven gap development in Birkely Wood, a long-term retention of planted Sitka spruce in upland Britain. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 17871796.
  • Rebertus, A.J. & Veblen, T.T. (1993) Structure and tree-fall gap dynamics of old-growth nothofagus forests in Tierra-Del-Fuego, Argentina. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 641654.
  • De Romer, A.H., Kneeshaw, D.D. & Bergeron, Y. (2007) Small gap dynamics in the southern boreal forest of eastern Canada: do canopy gaps influence stand development. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 815826.
  • Runkle, J.R. (1981) Gap regeneration in some old-growth forests of the eastern United States. Ecology, 62, 10411051.
  • Runkle, J.R. (1992) Guidelines and Sample Protocol for Sampling Forest Gaps. General Technical Report, PNW-GTR-283, USDA Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, USA.
  • Runkle, J.R. (1998) Changes in southern Appalachian canopy tree gaps sampled thrice. Ecology, 79, 17681780.
  • Runkle, J.R. & Yetter, T.C. (1997) Treefalls revisited: gap dynamics in the southern Appalachians. Ecology, 68, 417424.
  • Senecal, D., Kneeshaw, D.D. & Messier, C. (2004) Temporal, spatial and structural patterns of adult trembling aspen and white spruce mortality in Quebec’s boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, 308316.
  • St-Onge, B., Treitz, P. & Wulder, M. (2003) Tree and canopy height estimation with scanning lidar. Remote Sensing of Forest Environments: Concepts and Case Studie (eds M.A. Wulder & S.E. Franklin) pp. 489509. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
  • St-Onge, B. & Vepakomma, U. (2004) Assessing forest gap dynamics and growth using multi-temporal laser-scanner data. Proceedings of the Laser-Scanners for Forest and Landscape Assessment – Instruments, Processing Methods and Applications, International Conference, 3–6 Octobre 2004 eds R.H. Wynne & R.F. Nelson, pp. 173178, Frieburg im Breisgau.
  • St-Onge, B., Vepakomma, U., Hu, Y. & Wulder, M.. (2005) Mapping above ground forest biomass using lidar data and multispectral images. Proceedings of the Silviscan Conference: Lidar Applications in Forest Assessment and Inventory, 29 September–1 October, 2005 eds M. Thies, B. Koch, H. Spieker & H. Weinacker. Blackburg, VA, USA.
  • Tanaka, H. & Nakashizuka, T. (1997) Fifteen years of canopy dynamics analysed by aerial photographs in a temperate deciduous forest, Japan. Ecology, 78, 612620.
  • Tyrrell, L.E. & Crow, T.R. (1994) Structural characteristics of oldgrowth hemlock-hardwood forests in relation to age. Ecology, 75, 370386.
  • Umeki, K. (1995) A comparison of crown asymmetry between Picea abies and Betula maximowicziana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, 18761880.
  • Valverde, T. & Silvertown, J. (1997) Canopy closure rate and forest structure. Ecology, 78, 15551562.
  • Véga, C. & St-Onge, B. (2008) Height growth reconstruction of a boreal forest canopy over a period of 58 years using a combination of photogrammetric and lidar models. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 17841794.
  • Vepakomma, U., St-Onge, B. & Kneeshaw, D. (2008) Spatially explicit characterization of boreal forest gap dynamics using multi-temporal lidar data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 23262340.
  • Webb, S.L. & Scanga, S.E. (2001) Windstorm disturbance without patch dynamics: twelve years of change in a Minnesota forest. Ecology, 82, 893897.
  • Worrall, J.J., Lee, T.D. & Harrington, T.C. (2005) Forest dynamics and agents that initiate and expand canopy gaps in Picea–Abies forests of Crawford Notch, New Hampshire, USA. Journal of Ecology, 93, 178190.
  • Yamamoto, S. & Nishimura, N. (1999) Canopy gap formation and replacement pattern of major tree species among developmental stages of beech (Fagus crenata) stands, Japan. Plant Ecology, 140, 167176.
  • Yu, X., Hyypae, J., Kaartinen, H. & Maltamo, M. (2004) Automatic detection of harvested trees and determination of forest growth using airborne laser scanning. Remote Sensing of Environment, 90, 451462.