Nitrogen uptake by Carex aquatilis during the winter–spring transition in a low Arctic wet meadow


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1. Processes of decomposition occur year-round in tundra ecosystems and respond quickly to seasonal changes. Characterizing the phenology of plant nutrient uptake in relation to these processes is essential to understanding the current and future productivity of Arctic ecosystems.

2. In wet sedge meadows located near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, soil microbial biomass as well as inorganic and organic nutrient pools fluctuate seasonally, with late-winter peaks followed by declines of these variables during the early stages of soil thaw; however, it is unknown if the dominant plant in this community takes up nitrogen when levels of this nutrient are high but soil temperatures are 0 °C or below.

3. Stable isotope tracing was utilized by injecting 15NH4Cl into soil cores and incubating for 1 or 8 days during spring thaw to determine the short-term capacity for uptake and transport of inorganic nitrogen into Carex aquatilis (roots, shoots and rhizomes), moss and soil micro-organisms during this transitional time of year.

4. During three 8-day experimental trials in April and May 2007, C. aquatilis roots accumulated a substantial amount of the added nitrogen (33.5% increasing to 63.4%), when inorganic nitrogen was readily available in the soil, but declining. A smaller proportion of injected nitrogen was recovered from soil microbes (30% decreasing to 7%), and only trace amounts of injected 15N were measured in plant shoots, shoot bases, rhizomes and mosses (2% or less).

5.Synthesis. Shifting seasonal patterns in northern ecosystems resulting from climate change are likely to alter the progression of events that lead up to the summer growing season. A substantial pool of inorganic nitrogen resides temporarily in the soil at the end of winter, and we have shown here that plants are able to take up nitrogen at this time. Increases in the frequency and temperature highs of late-winter warming events are likely to trigger early episodes of soil thaw, potentially reducing the capacity of plants to take up this large ephemeral supply of nitrogen in early spring.