Figure S1. a) Aerial photograph of polygonal tundra on Samoylov (provided by J. Boike, SPARC group, AWI Potsdam). Studied polygons are numbered in red. b) Underwater photo of submerged Scorpidium scorpioides from site 1 surrounded by stems of Carex aquatilis.

Figure S2. Setup of the SIP experiment.

Figure S3. Scheme on the mechanism and light response of MAMO in submerged brown-mosses from Arctic polygonal tundra.

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