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Table S1. List of plant species considered ruderal in our analysis, species growth form and native status.

Table S2. List of other plant species (not considered ruderal) included in our analysis and species growth form. All species are native to the shortgrass steppe.

Table S3. Correlations between annual precipitation and cover response variables in the Control treatment.

Table S4. Total cover difference estimates, significance, and confidence intervals (α = 0.05) from repeated-measures analysis among treatments within years.

Table S5.Bouteloua gracilis difference estimates, significance, and confidence intervals (α = 0.05) from repeated-measures analysis among treatments within years.

Table S6. Ruderal cover difference estimates, significance, and confidence intervals (α = 0.05) from repeated-measures analysis among treatments within years.

Figure S1. Typical shortgrass vegetation at the Central Plains Experimental Range, CO, USA, including the dominant grass Bouteloua gracilis, Opuntia polyacantha cactus, and dwarf-shrub Artemisia frigida. Photo credit: Sallie Sprague.

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