SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aiba, S.-I. & Kohyama, T. (1997) Crown architecture and life-history traits of 14 tree species in a warm-temperate rain forest: significance of spatial heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 85, 611624.
  • Aikawa, S.-I. & Hori, Y. (2006) Effect of a multi-stemmed growth form on matter production of an understory shrub, Stephanandra incisa. Plant Species Biology, 21, 3139.
  • Amar, A., Smith, K.W., Butler, S., Lindsell, J.A., Hewson, C.M., Fuller, R.J. & Charman, E.C. (2010) Recent patterns of change in vegetation structure and tree composition of British broadleaved woodland: evidence from large-scale surveys. Forestry, 83, 345356.
  • Bella, I.E. (1971) A new competition model for individual trees. Forest Science, 17, 364372.
  • Bellingham, P.J. & Sparrow, A.D. (2000) Resprouting as a life history strategy in woody plant communities. Oikos, 89, 409416.
  • Bellingham, P.J. & Sparrow, A.D. (2009) Multi-stemmed trees in montane rain forests: their frequency and demography in relation to elevation, soil nutrients and disturbance. Journal of Ecology, 97, 472483.
  • Bond, W.J. & Midgley, J.J. (2001) Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16, 4551.
  • Bond, W.J. & Midgley, J.J. (2003) The evolutionary ecology of sprouting in woody plants. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164, S103S114.
  • Byatt, J.L. (1975) Hybridization between Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and C. laevigata (Poiret) DC. in south-eastern England. Watsonia, 10, 253264.
  • Canham, C.D., LePage, P.T. & Coates, K.D. (2004) A neighborhood analysis of canopy tree competition: effects of shading versus crowding. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, 778787.
  • Canham, C.D. & Uriarte, M. (2006) Analysis of neighborhood dynamics of forest ecosystems using likelihood methods and modeling. Ecological Applications, 16, 6273.
  • Canham, C.D., Denslow, J.S., Platt, W.J., Runkle, J.R., Spies, T.A. & White, P.S. (1990) Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 620631.
  • Canham, C.D., Finzi, A.C., Pacala, S.W. & Burbank, D.H. (1994) Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 337349.
  • Canham, C.D., Kobe, R.K., Latty, E.F. & Chazdon, R.L. (1999) Interspecific and intraspecific variation in tree seedling survival: effects of allocation to roots versus carbohydrate reserves. Oecologia, 121, 111.
  • Connell, J.H., Lowman, M.D. & Noble, I.R. (1997) Subcanopy gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Australian Journal of Ecology, 22, 163168.
  • Cooke, A.S. (1997) Effects of grazing by muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) on bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) and a field technique for assessing feeding activity. Journal of Zoology, 242, 365369.
  • Cooke, A.S. (2006) Monitoring Muntjac Deer Muntiacus reevesi and Their Impacts in Monks Wood National Nature Reserve. English Nature Research Report No 681. English Nature, Peterborough.
  • Cooke, A.S. & Farrell, L. (2001) Impact of muntjac deer (Muntiacus reevesi) at Monks Wood National Nature Reserve, Cambridgeshire, eastern England. Forestry, 74, 241250.
  • Coomes, D.A. & Allen, R.B. (2007a) Mortality and tree-size distributions in natural mixed-age forests. Journal of Ecology, 95, 2740.
  • Coomes, D.A. & Allen, R.B. (2007b) Effects of size, competition and altitude on tree growth. Journal of Ecology, 95, 10841097.
  • Coomes, D.A. & Grubb, P.J. (1998) A comparison of 12 tree species of Amazonian caatinga using growth rates in gaps and understorey, and allometric relationships. Functional Ecology, 12, 426435.
  • Crampton, A.B., Stutter, O., Kirby, K.J. & Welch, R.C. (1998) Changes in the composition of Monks Wood National Nature Reserve (Cambridgeshire, UK) 1964–1996. Arboricultural Journal, 22, 229245.
  • Dietze, M.C. & Clark, J.S. (2008) Changing the gap dynamics paradigm: vegetative regeneration control on forest response to disturbance. Ecological Monographs, 78, 331347.
  • Fajardo, A. & McIntire, E.J.B. (2010) Merged trees in second-growth, fire origin forests in Patagonia, Chile: positive spatial association patterns and their ecological implications. American Journal of Botany, 97, 14241430.
  • Feild, T.S., Arens, N.C., Doyle, J.A., Dawson, T.E. & Donoghue, M.J. (2004) Dark and disturbed: a new image of early angiosperm ecology. Paleobiology, 30, 82107.
  • Franco, M. (1986) The influences of neighbours on the growth of modular organisms with an example from trees. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 313, 209225.
  • Frelich, L.E. & Reich, P.B. (1999) Neighborhood effects, disturbance severity, and community stability in forests. Ecosystems, 2, 151166.
  • Fujiki, D. & Kikuzawa, K. (2006) Stem turnover strategy of multiple-stemmed woody plants. Ecological Research, 21, 380386.
  • Gelman, A. & Hill, J. (2007) Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Gelman, A. & Pardoe, I. (2006) Bayesian measures of explained variance and pooling in multilevel (hierarchical) models. Technometrics, 48, 241251.
  • Givnish, T.J. (1984) Leaf and canopy adaptations in tropical forests. Physiological Ecology of Plants of the Wet Tropics (eds E. Medina, H.A. Mooney & C. Vázquez-Yánes), pp. 5184, Dr W. Junk, The Hague.
  • Herms, D.A. & Mattson, W.J. (1992) The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology, 67, 283335.
  • Hester, A.J., Edenius, L., Buttenschon, R.M. & Kuiters, A.T. (2000) Interactions between forests and herbivores: the role of controlled grazing experiments. Forestry, 73, 381391.
  • Hopkins, J.J. & Kirby, K.J. (2007) Ecological change in British broadleaved woodland since 1947. Ibis, 149, 2940.
  • Iwasa, Y. & Kubo, T. (1997) Optimal size of storage for recovery after unpredictable disturbances. Evolutionary Ecology, 11, 4165.
  • Joys, A., Fuller, R. & Dolman, P. (2004) Influences of deer browsing, coppice history, and standard trees on the growth and development of vegetation structure in coppiced woods in lowland England. Forest Ecology and Management, 202, 2337.
  • Kabeya, D., Sakai, A., Matsui, K. & Sakai, S. (2003) Resprouting ability of Quercus crispula seedlings depends on the vegetation cover of their microhabitats. Journal of Plant Research, 116, 207216.
  • King, D. (1981) Tree dimensions: maximizing the rate of height growth in dense stands. Oecologia, 51, 351356.
  • King, D.A., Leigh, E.G., Condit, R., Foster, R.B. & Hubbell, S.P. (1997) Relationships between branch spacing, growth rate and light in tropical forest saplings. Functional Ecology, 11, 627635.
  • Kirby, K.J. (2004) A model of a British forest-landscape driven by large herbivore activity. Forestry, 77, 406420.
  • Kobe, R.K. (1997) Carbohydrate allocation to storage as a basis of interspecific variation in sapling survivorship and growth. Oikos, 80, 226233.
  • Kohyama, T. (1987) Significance of architecture and allometry in saplings. Functional Ecology, 1, 399404.
  • Koop, H. (1987) Vegetative reproduction of trees in some European natural forests. Plant Ecology, 72, 103110.
  • de Kroon, H. & Hutchings, M.J. (1995) Morphological plasticity in clonal plants: the foraging concept reconsidered. Journal of Ecology, 83, 143152.
  • Kuijper, D.P.J., Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., Jędrzejewska, B., Miścicki, S., Churski, M., Jędrzejewski, W. & Kweczlich, I. (2010) Bottom-up versus top-down control of tree regeneration in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Ecology, 98, 888899.
  • Lovett-Doust, L. (1981) Population dynamics and local specialization in a clonal perennial (Ranunculus repens): I. The dynamics of ramets in contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology, 69, 743755.
  • Lunn, D.J., Thomas, A., Best, N. & Spiegelhalter, D. (2000) WinBUGS – A Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Statistics and Computing, 10, 325337.
  • Lunn, D., Best, N., Spiegelhalter, D., Graham, G. & Neuenschwander, B. (2009) Combining MCMC with ‘sequential’ PKPD modelling. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 36, 1938.
  • Mayle, B.A., Peace, A.J. & Gill, R.M.A. (1999) How Many Deer? Forestry Commission, Edinburgh.
  • McMahon, T. (1973) Size and shape in biology. Science, 179, 12011204.
  • Midgley, J.J. (1996) Why the world’s vegetation is not totally dominated by resprouting plants; because resprouters are shorter than reseeders. Ecography, 19, 9295.
  • Mountford, E.P. (2004) Long-term Patterns of Mortality and Regeneration in Near-natural Woodland. PhD Thesis, Open University, Milton Keynes.
  • Mountford, E.P., Peterken, G.F., Edwards, P.J. & Manners, J.G. (1999) Long-term change in growth, mortality and regeneration of trees in Denny Wood, an old-growth wood-pasture in the New Forest (UK). Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 2, 223272.
  • Peterken, G.F. (1993) Woodland Conservation and Management. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Poorter, L., Bongers, L. & Bongers, F. (2006) Architecture of 54 moist-forest tree species: traits, trade-offs, and functional groups. Ecology, 87, 12891301.
  • Poorter, L., Kitajima, K., Mercado, P., Chubiña, J., Melgar, I. & Prins, H. (2010) Resprouting as a persistence strategy in dry and moist tropical forest trees: its relation with carbohydrate storage and shade tolerance. Ecology, 91, 26132627.
  • R Development Core Team. (2009) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
  • Rackham, O. (2003) Ancient Woodland: Its History, Vegetation and Uses in England. Castlepoint Press, Dalbeattie.
  • Ripple, W.J. & Beschta, R.L. (2005) Willow thickets protect young aspen from elk browsing after wolf reintroduction. Western North American Naturalist, 65, 118122.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1991) British Plant Communities: Woodlands and Scrub. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Royo, A.A., Stout, S.L., deCalesta, D.S. & Pierson, T.G. (2010) Restoring forest herb communities through landscape-level deer herd reductions: is recovery limited by legacy effects? Biological Conservation, 143, 24252434.
  • Ryan, M.G. & Yoder, B.J. (1997) Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth. BioScience, 47, 235242.
  • Sakai, A. & Sakai, S. (1998) A test for the resource remobilization hypothesis: tree sprouting using carbohydrates from above-ground parts. Annals of Botany, 82, 213216.
  • Sheil, D. & May, R.M. (1996) Mortality and recruitment rate evaluations in heterogeneous tropical forests. Journal of Ecology, 84, 91100.
  • Steele, R.C. & Welch, R.C., eds. (1973) Monks Wood: A Nature Reserve Record. The Nature Conservancy, Huntingdon.
  • Sturtz, S., Ligges, U. & Gelman, A. (2005) R2WinBUGS: a package for running WinBUGS from R. Journal of Statistical Software, 12, 116.
  • Tanentzap, A.J., Burrows, L.E., Lee, W.G., Nugent, G., Maxwell, J.M. & Coomes, D.A. (2009) Landscape-level vegetation recovery from herbivory: progress after four decades of invasive red deer control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46, 10641072.
  • Tanentzap, A.J., Bazely, D.R., Koh, S., Timciska, M., Haggith, E.G., Carleton, T.J. & Coomes, D.A. (2011) Seeing the forest for the deer: do reductions in deer-disturbance lead to forest recovery? Biological Conservation, 144, 376382.
  • del Tredici, P. (2001) Sprouting in temperate trees: a morphological and ecological review. Botanical Review, 67, 121140.
  • Vaughan, S., Cottrell, J., Moodley, D., Connolly, T. & Russell, K. (2007) Clonal structure and recruitment in British wild cherry (Prunus avium L.). Forest Ecology and Management, 242, 419430.
  • Vera, F.W.M. (2002) Grazing Ecology and Forest History. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
  • Vesk, P.A. (2006) Plant size and resprouting ability: trading tolerance and avoidance of damage? Journal of Ecology, 94, 10271034.
  • Vesk, P.A. & Westoby, M. (2004) Sprouting ability across diverse disturbances and vegetation types worldwide. Journal of Ecology, 92, 310320.
  • Vilà, M., Weiner, J. & Terradas, J. (1994) Effect of local competition on resprouting of Arbutus unedo after clipping. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 145152.
  • Wells, P.V. (1969) The relation between mode of reproduction and extent of speciation in woody genera of the California chaparral. Evolution, 23, 264267.