SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aerts, R. (1995) The advantages of being evergreen. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 402407.
  • Akaike, H. (1992) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. Breakthroughs in Statistics, Vol. 1 (eds S. Kotz & N. Johnson), pp. 610624. Springer-Verlag, London.
  • Alcántara, J.M., Rey, P.J., Valera, F. & Sánchez-Lafuente, A.M. (2000) Factors shaping the seedfall pattern of a bird-dispersed plant. Ecology, 81, 19371950.
  • Alcántara, J.M. & Rey, P.J. (2003) Conflicting selection pressures on seed size: evolutionary ecology of fruit size in a bird-dispersed tree, Olea europaea. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 16, 11681176.
  • Baraloto, C., Forget, P.M. & Goldberg, D.E. (2005b) Seed mass, seedling size and neotropical tree seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology, 93, 11561166.
  • Baraloto, C., Goldberg, D.E. & Bonal, D. (2005a) Performance trade-offs among tropical tree seedlings in contrasting microhabitats. Ecology, 86, 24612472.
  • Battaglia, L.L., Foré, S.A. & Sharitz, R.R. (2000) Seedling emergence, survival and size in relation to light and water availability in two bottomland hardwood species. Journal of Ecology, 88, 10411050.
  • Borland International Inc. (1996) Borland C++ v. 5.01. USA.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
  • Castro, J. (1999) Seed mass versus seedling performance in Scots pine: a maternally dependent trait. New Phytologist, 144, 153161.
  • Castro, J. (2006) Short delay in timing of emergence determines establishment success in Pinus sylvestris across microhabitats. Annals of Botany, 98, 12331240.
  • Castro, J., Zamora, R., Hódar, J.A. & Gómez, J.M. (2005) Alleviation of summer boosts establishment success of Pinus sylvestris in a Mediterranean mountain: an experimental approach. Plant Ecology, 181, 191202.
  • Cavender-Bares, J. & Bazzaz, F.A. (2000) Changes in drought response strategies with ontogeny in Quercus rubra: implications for scaling from seedlings to mature trees. Oecologia, 124, 818.
  • Chesson, P.L. (2000) Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 343366.
  • Clark, D.A. & Clark, D.B. (1992) Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rain forest. Ecological Monographs, 62, 315344.
  • Clark, J.S., Beckage, B., Camill, P., Cleveland, B., Hille Ris Lambers, J., Lichter, J., Mclachlan, J., Mohan, J. & Wyckoff, P. (1999) Interpreting recruitment limitation in forests. American Journal of Botany, 86, 116.
  • Delta-T Devices Ltd (1999) Hemiview Canopy Analysis Software version 2.1. Delta-T Devices Ltd, Cambridge, UK.
  • Edwards, A.W.F. (1992) Likelihood – Expanded edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.
  • Eriksson, O. & Jakobsson, A. (1999) Recruitment trade-offs and the evolution of dispersal mechanisms in plants. Evolutionary Ecology, 13, 411423.
  • Espelta, J.M., Riba, M. & Retana, J. (1995) Patterns of seedling recruitment in West-Mediterranean Quercus ilex forests influenced by canopy development. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 465472.
  • Espelta, J.M., Cortés, P., Molowny-Horas, R. & Retana, J. (2009) Acorn crop size and pre-dispersal predation determine inter-specific differences in the recruitment of co-occurring oaks. Oecologia, 161, 559568.
  • Goffe, W.L., Ferrier, G.D. & Rogers, J. (1994) Global optimization of statistical functions with simulated annealing. Journal of Econometrics, 60, 6599.
  • Gómez, J.M. (2004) Bigger is not always better: conflicting selective pressures on seed size in Quercus ilex. Evolution, 58, 7180.
  • Gómez, J.M., García, D. & Zamora, R. (2003) Impact of vertebrate acorn- and seedling-predators on a Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 180, 125134.
  • Gómez, J.M., Puerta-Piñero, C. & Schupp, E.W. (2008) Effectiveness of rodents as local seed dispersers of Holm Oaks. Oecologia, 155, 529537.
  • Gómez-Aparicio, L. (2008) Spatial patterns of recruitment in Mediterranean plant species: linking the fate of seeds, seedlings and saplings in heterogeneous landscapes at different scales. Journal of Ecology, 96, 11281140.
  • Gómez-Aparicio, L., Valladares, F. & Zamora, R. (2006) Differential light responses of Mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species. Tree Physiology, 26, 947958.
  • Gómez-Aparicio, L., Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Mendoza, I., Matías, L., Quero, J.L., Castro, J., Zamora, R. & Marañón, T. (2008) Oak seedling survival and growth along resource gradients in Mediterranean forests: implications for regeneration in current and future environmental scenarios. Oikos, 117, 16831699.
  • Gribko, L.S. & Jones, W.E. (1995) Test of float method of assessing northern red oak acorn condition. Tree Planter’s Notes, 46, 143147.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1977) Maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: importance of regeneration niche. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 52, 107145.
  • Herrera, J. (1995) Acorn predation and seedling production in a low-density population of cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Forest Ecology and Management, 76, 197201.
  • Herrera, C.M., Jordano, P., López-Soria, L. & Amat, J.A. (1994) Recruitment of a mast-fruiting, bird-dispersed tree: bridging frugivore activity and seedling establishment. Ecological Monographs, 64, 315344.
  • Houle, G. (1992) Spatial relationship between seed and seedling abundance and mortality in a deciduous forest of north-eastern North America. Journal of Ecology, 80, 99108.
  • Houle, G. (1994) Spatiotemporal patterns in the components of regeneration of four sympatric tree species –Acer rubrum, A. saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis and Fagus grandifolia. Journal of Ecology, 82, 3953.
  • Houle, G. (1998) Seed dispersal and seedling recruitment of Betula alleghaniensis: spatial inconsistency in time. Ecology, 79, 807818.
  • Hulme, P.E. (1997) Post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of vertebrate dispersed plants in Mediterranean scrublands. Oecologia, 111, 9198.
  • Hulme, P.E. & Hunt, M.K. (1999) Rodent post-dispersal seed predation in deciduous woodland: predator response to absolute and relative abundance of prey. Journal of Animal Ecology, 68, 417428.
  • Janzen, D.H. (1970) Herbivores and the number of the tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist, 104, 501528.
  • Jordano, P. & Herrera, C.M. (1995) Shuffling the offspring: uncoupling and spatial discordance of multiple stages in vertebrate seed dispersal. Ecoscience, 2, 230237.
  • Kelly, D. (1994) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 465470.
  • Kelly, D. & Sork, V.L. (2002) Mast seeding in perennial plants: why, how, where? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 427447.
  • Kitajima, K. & Fenner, M. (2000) Ecology of seedling regeneration. Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities (ed. M. Fenner), pp. 331359. CAB International, London, UK.
  • Kneitel, J.M. & Chase, J.M. (2004) Trade-offs in community ecology: linking spatial scales and species coexistence. Ecology Letters, 7, 6980.
  • Kollmann, J. & Schill, H.P. (1996) Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petraea and Corylus avellana. Vegetatio, 125, 193205.
  • Leishman, M.R. & Westoby, M. (1994) The role of large seed size in shaded conditions: experimental evidence. Functional Ecology, 8, 205214.
  • Lloret, F., Casanovas, C. & Peñuelas, J. (1999) Seedling survival of Mediterranean shrubland species in relation to root: shoot ratio, seed size and water and nitrogen use. Functional Ecology, 13, 210216.
  • MacArthur, R.H. & Levins, R. (1964) Competition, habitat selection and character displacement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 51, 12071210.
  • Maltez-Mouro, S., García, L.V. & Freitas, H. (2009) Influence of forest structure and environmental variables on recruit survival and performance of two Mediterranean tree species (Quercus faginea L. and Q. suber Lam.). European Journal of Forest Research, 128, 2736.
  • Mendoza, I., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R. & Matías, L. (2009) Recruitment limitation in a degraded Mediterranean landscape. Journal of Vegetation Science, 20, 367376.
  • Metcalfe, D.J. & Grubb, P.J. (1995) Seed mass and light requirements for regeneration of Southeast Asian rain forest. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, 817826.
  • Moegenburg, S.M. (1996) Sabal palmetto seed size: causes of variation, choice of predators and consequences for seedlings. Oecologia, 106, 539543.
  • Moles, A.T. & Westoby, M. (2004) Seedling survival and seed size: a synthesis of the literature. Journal of Ecology, 92, 372383.
  • Molofsky, J. & Augspurger, C.K. (1992) The effects of leaf litter on early seedling establishment in a tropical forest. Ecology, 73, 6877.
  • Nathan, R. & Muller-Landau, H.C. (2000) Spatial patterns of seed dispersal, their determinants and consequences for recruitment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 278285.
  • Norden, N., Chave, J., Belbenoit, P., Caubère, A., Châtelet, P., Forget, P.M., Riéra, B., Viers, J. & Thébaud, C. (2009) Interspecific variation in seedling responses to seed limitation and habitat conditions for 14 Neotropical woody species. Journal of Ecology, 97, 186197.
  • Ojeda, F., Marañón, T. & Arroyo, J. (2000) Plant diversity patterns in the Aljibe Mountains (S. Spain): a comprehensive account. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9, 13231343.
  • Pausas, J.G., Marañón, T., Caldeira, M. & Pons, J. (2009) Natural regeneration. Cork Oak Woodlands on the Edge. Ecology, Adaptive Management and Restoration (eds J. Aronson, J.S. Pereira & J. Pausas), pp. 115124. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M. (2007) Factores que condicionan la regeneración natural de especies leñosas en un bosque mediterráneo del sur de la Península Ibérica. PhD thesis, University of Seville, Spain.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M. & Marañón, T. (2008) Factors affecting postdispersal seed predation in two coexisting oak species: microhabitat, burial and exclusion of large herbivores. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 35063514.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M. & Marañón, T. (2009) Effects of waterlogging on seed germination of three Mediterranean oak species: ecological implications. Acta Oecologica, 35, 422428.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Marañón, T., Lobo, J.M. & Verdú, J.R. (2007) Acorn removal and dispersal by the dung beetle Thorectes lusitanicus: ecological implications. Ecological Entomology, 32, 349356.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Zavala, M.A., Marañón, T., Díaz-Villa, M.D. & Valladares, F. (2008a) Dynamics of understorey diversity following shrub-clearing of cork oak forests: a five-year study. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 32423253.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Urbieta, T.I., Marañón, T., Zavala, M.A. & Kobe, R.K. (2008b) Seed removal in two coexisting oak species: ecological consequences of seed size, plant cover and seed-drop timing. Oikos, 117, 13861396.
  • Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Villar, R., García, L.V. & Marañón, T. (2010) Seedling growth and morphology of three oak species along field resource gradients and seed mass variation: a seedling age-dependent response. Journal of Vegetation Science, 21, 419437.
  • Pons, J. & Pausas, J.G. (2007) Rodent acorn selection in a Mediterranean oak landscape. Ecological Research, 22, 535541.
  • Poorter, L. & Rose, S.A. (2005) Light-dependent changes in the relationship between seed mass and seedling traits: a meta-analysis for rain forest tree species. Oecologia, 142, 378387.
  • Pulido, F.J. & Díaz, M. (2005) Regeneration of a Mediterranean oak: a whole-cycle approach. Ecoscience, 12, 92102.
  • Purves, D.W., Zavala, M.A., Ogle, K., Prieto, F. & Rey-Benayas, J.M. (2007) Environmental heterogeneity, bird-mediated directed dispersal, and oak woodland dynamics in Mediterranean Spain. Ecological Monographs, 77, 7797.
  • Quero, J.L., Villar, R., Marañón, T. & Zamora, R. (2006) Interactions of drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species: physiological and structural leaf responses. New Phytologist, 170, 819834.
  • Quero, J.L., Villar, R., Marañón, T., Zamora, R. & Poorter, L. (2007) Seed-mass effects in four Mediterranean Quercus species (Fagaceae) growing in contrasting light environments. American Journal of Botany, 94, 17951803.
  • Quero, J.L., Gómez-Aparicio, L., Zamora, R. & Maestre, F.T. (2008) Shifts in the regeneration niche of an endagered tree (Acer opalus ssp. granatense) during ontogeny: using an ecological concept for application. Basic and Applied Ecology, 9, 635644.
  • Quilchano, C., Marañón, T., Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Noejovich, L., Valladares, F. & Zavala, M.A. (2008) Patterns and ecological consequences of abiotic heterogeneity in managed cork oak forests of southern Spain. Ecological Research, 23, 127139.
  • R Development Core Team. (2006) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing v. 2.5.0. R Development Core Team, Vienna, Austria.
  • Rey, P. & Alcántara, J.M. (2000) Recruitment dynamics of a fleshy-fruited plant (Olea europaea): connecting patterns of seed dispersal to seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology, 88, 622633.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. (1977) Environmental heterogeneity and plant species diversity: a hypothesis. American Naturalist, 111, 377381.
  • Santos, T. & Tellería, J.L. (1997) Vertebrate predation on Holm Oak, Quercus ilex, acorns in a fragmented habitat: effects on seedling recruitment. Forest Ecology and Management, 98, 181187.
  • Schupp, E.W. (1995) Seed seedling conflicts, habitat choice, and patterns of plant recruitment. American Journal of Botany, 82, 399409.
  • Schupp, E.W. & Fuentes, M. (1995) Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and the unification of plant population ecology. Ecoscience, 2, 267275.
  • Seiwa, K. (2000) Effects of seed size and emergence time on tree seedling establishment: importance of developmental constraints. Oecologia, 123, 208215.
  • Silvertown, J. (1980) The evolutionary ecology of mast seeding in trees. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 14, 235250.
  • Silvertown, J. (2004) Plant coexistence and the niche. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 605611.
  • Smith, C.C. & Fretwell, S.D. (1974) The optimal balance between size and number of offspring. American Naturalist, 108, 499506.
  • StatSoft, Inc. (2001) STATISTICA for Windows Computer Program Manual. StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA.
  • Traveset, A., Gulias, J., Riera, N. & Mus, M. (2003) Transition probabilities from pollination to establishment in a rare dioecious shrub species (Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris) in two habitats. Journal of Ecology, 91, 427437.
  • Urbieta, T.I., Zavala, M.A. & Marañón, T. (2008a) Human and non-human determinants of forest composition in southern Spain: evidence of shifts toward cork oak dominance as a result of management over the past century. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 16881700.
  • Urbieta, I.R., Pérez-Ramos, I.M., Zavala, M.A., Marañón, T. & Kobe, R.K. (2008b) Soil water heterogeneity and emergence time control seedling establishment in three co-occurring oak species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 23822393.
  • Urbieta, I.R., García, L.V., Zavala, M.A. & Marañón, T. (2011) Mediterranean pine and oak distribution in southern Spain: is there a mismatch between regeneration and adult distribution? Journal of Vegetation Science, 22, 1831.
  • Verdú, M. & Traveset, A. (2005) Early emergence enhances plant fitness: a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis. Ecology, 86, 13851394.