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Male fecundity and pollen dispersal in hill dipterocarps: significance of mass synchronized flowering and implications for conservation

Authors

  • Naoki Tani,

    Corresponding author
    1. Forestry Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 Japan
    2. Forestry Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
      Correspondence author. E-mail: ntani@affrc.go.jp
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  • Yoshihiko Tsumura,

    1. Department of Forest Genetics, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 Japan
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  • Keita Fukasawa,

    1. Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 Japan
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  • Tomoyuki Kado,

    1. Hayama Center for Advanced Studies, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura-Gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 Japan
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  • Yuriko Taguchi,

    1. Department of Forest Genetics, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 Japan
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  • S. L. Lee,

    1. Forestry Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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  • C. T. Lee,

    1. Forestry Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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  • Norwati Muhammad,

    1. Forestry Biotechnology Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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  • Kaoru Niiyama,

    1. Tohoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020-0123 Japan
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  • Tatsuya Otani,

    1. Shikoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Asakuranishi-Machi, Kochi 780-8077 Japan
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  • Tsutomu Yagihashi,

    1. Tohoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka, Iwate 020-0123 Japan
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  • Azizi Ripin,

    1. Green Forest Resources, 48300 Rawang, Selengor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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  • Abdul Rahman Kassim

    1. Forestry and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), 52109 Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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Correspondence author. E-mail: ntani@affrc.go.jp

Summary

1. To understand pollinator–plant symbioses and to conserve forest resources effectively, we need an understanding of pollen dispersal patterns and the heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) of male fecundity.

2. We investigated pollen dispersal patterns of the hill dipterocarp species Shorea curtisii using a modified Neighbourhood model. Seeds were collected following a sporadic general flowering (GF) event in 2002 and two mass GF events in 1998 and 2005. Seed paternity was then determined to investigate pollen dispersal patterns and the heterogeneity of male fecundity.

3. Pollen dispersal distances were longer, and the effective number of males lower, in the sporadic GF of 2002, than in the mass GF events of 1998 and 2005.

4. There was high between-individual variation in male fecundity, and small trees contributed less than large trees to the analysed seed pool. The results indicate that selective logging may adversely affect the reproduction of such species due to the removal of large trees from the reproductive population.

5.Synthesis. The large number of effective male individuals during the mass GF events provides evidence of Allee effects, suggesting that the mass GF events are of evolutionary significance and may contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity. Future forestry practice needs to take into account variation in male fecundity, pollen dispersal and the mating system to ensure sustainable regeneration.

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