Appendix S1. Methods.

Table S1. Plot information.

Table S2. Parameters of tree equations.

Table S3. Age and seasonal effect on physiological parameters and leaf characteristics.

Table S4. Parameters of canopy model.

Figure S1. Forest stand ages within the Highlands Region.

Figure S2. Annual canopy carbon fluxes in response to changes in model parameters.

Figure S3. Tree mortality in long-term plots and the deviation of mortality among plots.

Figure S4. Changes of tree size distribution, average tree AGB and cumulative AGB.

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