Appendix S1. Additional methods.

Appendix S2. Optimal height threshold between the canopy and understorey versus height threshold (Z*1) predicted by the PPA model.

Appendix S3. Allometric relationships between diameter, crown area and height for all trees and the most common functional groups in the canopy layer.

Appendix S4. Variation in growth and mortality with diameter for each crown layer.

Appendix S5. The probability of predicting trees in the appropriate crown layer and differences in observed versus predicted dynamic rates for different subplot sizes.

Appendix S6. Structural characteristics of individual subplots predicted by the PPA model.

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