SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Agrawal, A.A., Kotanen, P.M., Mitchell, C.E., Power, A.G., Godsoe, W. & Klironomos, J. (2005) Enemy release? An experiment with congeneric plant pairs and diverse above- and belowground enemies. Ecology, 86, 29792989.
  • Alsos, I.G. & Engelskjøn, T. (2002) Conservation genetics and population history of Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, and Campanula rotundifolia in the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 34, 408418.
  • Alsos, I.G., Spjelkavik, S. & Engelskjen, T. (2003) Seed bank size and composition of Betula nana, Vaccinium uliginosum, and Campanula rotundifolia habitats in Svalbard and northern Norway. Canadian Journal of Botany, 81, 220231.
  • Antonovics, J., Bradshaw, A.D. & Turner, R.G. (1971) Heavy metal tolerance in plants. Advances in Ecological Research, 7, 185.
  • Baker, A.J.M. (1981) Accumulators and excluders – strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 3, 643654.
  • Baker, A.J.M., Ernst, W.H.O., van der Ent, A., Malaisse, F. & Ginocchio, R. (2010) Metallophytes: the unique biological resource, its ecology and conservational status in Europe, central Africa and Latin America. Ecology of Industrial Pollution (eds L.C. Batty & K.B. Hallberg), pp. 740. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Barnes, C.R. (1885) The process of fertilisation in Campanula americana. Botanical Gazette, 10, 348354.
  • Bauer, G., Nellesen, A. & Speck, T. (2010) Biological lattices in fast self-repair mechanisms in plants and the development of bio-inspired self-healing polymers. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 138, 453459.
  • Bell, F.G., Coope, G.R., Rice, R.J. & Riley, T.H. (1972) Mid-Weichselian fossil-bearing deposits at Syston, Leicestershire. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, 83, 197211.
  • Bennett, M.D. & Smith, J.B. (1991) Nuclear DNA amounts in angiosperms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 334, 309345.
  • Bezemer, T.M., Lawson, C.S., Hedlund, K., Edwards, A.R., Brook, A.J., Igual, J.M., Mortimer, S.R. & Van Der Putten, W.H. (2006) Plant species and functional group effects on abiotic and microbial soil properties and plant–soil feedback responses in two grasslands. Journal of Ecology, 94, 893904.
  • Bielawska, H. (1964) Cytogenetic relationships between lowland and montane species of Campanula rotundifolia L. group. I. C. cochlearifolia Lam. and C. rotundifolia L. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 33, 1544.
  • Bielawska, H. (1968) Cytogenic relationships between lowland and montane species of Campanula rotundifolia L. group II tetrapoid C. rotundifolia L. s. str.as well as C. polymorpha Witasek and C. scheuchzeri Vill. from Poland. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 37, 261296.
  • Bingham, R.A. & Orthner, A.R. (1998) Efficient pollination of plants. Nature, 391, 238239.
  • Birch, A.N.E., Robertson, W.M., Geoghegan, I.E., McGavin, W.J., Alphey, T.J.W., Phillips, M.S., Fellows, L.E., Watson, A.A., Simmonds, M.S.J. & Porter, E.A. (1993) DMDP – a plant-derived sugar analogue with systemic activity against plant parasitic nematodes. Nematologia, 39, 521535.
  • Birks, H.H. & Mathewes, R.W. (1978) Studies in vegetational history of Scotland 5. Late Devensian and Early Flandrian pollen and macrofossil stratigraphy at Abernethy Forest, Inverness-shire. New Phytologist, 80, 455484.
  • Blionis, G.J., Halley, J.M. & Vokou, D. (2001) Flowering phenology of Campanula on Mt Olympos, Greece. Ecography, 24, 696706.
  • Block, F.M. (1964) Incompatibility in the genusCampanula. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Durham, Durham, UK.
  • Böcher, T.W. (1960) Experimental and cytological studies on plant species v. the Campanula rotundifolia complex. Biologiske Skrifter Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 11, 198.
  • Böcher, T.W. (1966) Experimental and cytological studies on plant species: XI. North Atlantic tetraploids of the Campanula rotundifolia complex. Annales Botanici Fennici, 3, 287298.
  • Bonde, E.K. (1969) Plant disseminules in wind-blown debris from a glacier in Colorado. Arctic and Alpine Research, 1, 135139.
  • Booth, R.E. & Grime, J.P. (2003) Effects of genetic impoverishment on plant community diversity. Journal of Ecology, 91, 721730.
  • Bos, J.A.A., Dickson, J.H., Coope, G.R. & Jardine, W.G. (2004) Flora, fauna and climate of Scotland during the Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial – palynological, macrofossil and coleopteran investigations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 204, 65100.
  • Braithwaite, M.E., Ellis, R.W. & Preston, C.D. (2006) Change in the British Flora 1987–2004. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London, UK.
  • Brocklebank, K.J. & Hendry, G.A.F. (1989) Characteristics of plant species which store different types of reserve carbohydrates. New Phytologist, 112, 255260.
  • Cahill, J.F., Elle, E., Smith, G.R. & Shore, B.H. (2008) Disruption of a belowground mutualism alters interactions between plants and their floral visitors. Ecology, 89, 17911801.
  • Campbell, B.D., Grime, J.P. & Mackey, J.M.L. (1991) A trade-off between scale and precision in resource foraging. Oecologia, 87, 532538.
  • Carey, P.D., Wallis, S., Chamberlain, P.M., Cooper, A., Emmett, B.A., Maskell, L.C. et al. (2008) Countryside Survey: UK results from 2007. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. http://www.countrysidesurvey.org.uk. Accessed 19 July 2011.
  • Carroll, J.A., Caporn, S.J.M., Johnson, D., Morecroft, M.D. & Lee, J.A. (2003) The interactions between plant growth, vegetation structure and soil processes in semi-natural acidic and calcareous grasslands receiving long-term inputs of simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition. Environmental Pollution, 121, 363376.
  • Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M. (1987) Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Cook, S.C.A., Lefebvre, C. & McNeilly, T. (1972) Competition between metal tolerant and normal plant populations on normal soil. Evolution, 26, 366372.
  • Cooke, J.A., Johnson, M.S., Davidson, A.W. & Bradshaw, A.D. (1976) Fluoride in plants colonising fluorspar mine waste in the Peak District and Weardale. Environmental Pollution, 11, 923.
  • Coope, G.R., Shotton, F.W., Strachan, I. & Dance, S.P. (1961) A late Pleistocene fauna and flora from Upton Warren, Worcestershire. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 244, 379421.
  • Cresswell, E.G. (1982) The Developmental Origin and Ecological Consequences of Seed Germination Responses to Light. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
  • Cresswell, J.E. & Robertson, A.W. (1994) Discrimination by pollen-collecting bumblebees among differentially rewarding flowers of an alpine wildflower, Campanula rotundifolia (Campanulaceae). Oikos, 69, 304308.
  • DBIF (2011) Database of Insects and their Food Plants. Biological Records Centre http://www.brc.ac.uk/dbif/. Accessed 19 July 2011.
  • De Deyn, G.B., Raaijmakers, C.E., Zoomer, H.R., Berg, M.P., de Ruiter, P.C., Verhoef, H.A., Bezemer, T.M. & van der Putten, W.H. (2003) Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity. Nature, 422, 711713.
  • Dunbar, A. (1973) A short report on the fine structure of some Campanulaceae pollen. Grana, 13, 2528.
  • Eddie, W.M.M., Shulkina, T., Gaskin, J., Haberle, R.C. & Jansen, R.K. (2003) Phylogeny of the Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 90, 554575.
  • Ellis, M.B. & Ellis, J.P. (1997) Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook, 2nd edn. Croom Helm, London, UK.
  • Engelskjøn, T., Lund, L. & Alsos, I.G. (2003) Twenty of the most thermophilous vascular plant species in Svalbard and their conservation state. Polar Research, 22, 317339.
  • Fitter, A.H. & Peat, H.J. (1994) The Ecological Flora Database. Journal of Ecology, 82, 415425 http://www.ecoflora.co.uk http://www.ecoflora.co.uk. Accessed 19 July 2011.
  • Flovik, K. (1940) Chromosome numbers and polyploidy within the flora of Spitzbergen. Hereditas, 26, 430440.
  • Fridley, J.D., Grime, J.P. & Bilton, M. (2007) Genetic identity of interspecific neighbours mediates plant responses to competition and environmental variation in a species-rich grassland. Journal of Ecology, 95, 908915.
  • Fridley, J.D., Grime, J.P., Askew, A.P., Moser, B. & Stevens, C.J. (2011) Soil heterogeneity buffers community response to climate change in species-rich grassland. Global Change Biology, 17, 20022011.
  • Gadella, T.W.J. (1964) Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Campanula. Wentia, 11, 1104.
  • Gadella, T.W.J. (1966) Some notes on the delimitation of genera in the Campanulaceae. I. Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Science. Series C., 69, 502521.
  • Gathmann, A. & Tscharntke, T. (2002) Foraging ranges of solitary bees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 71, 757764.
  • Gerarde, J. (1597) The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes. John Norton, London.
  • Geslot, A. & Medus, J. (1971) Morphologie pollinique et nombre chromosomique dans la sous-section Heterophylla du genre Campanula. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 13, 888894.
  • Giblin, D.E. (2005) Variation in floral longevity between populations of Campanula rotundifolia (Campanulaceae) in response to fitness accrual rate manipulation. American Journal of Botany, 92, 17141722.
  • Goyder, D.J. (1983) Pollination ecology of five species in a limestone community. Watsonia, 14, 397405.
  • Grime, J.P., Hodgson, J.G. & Hunt, R. (2007) Comparative Plant Ecology: a Functional Approach to Common British Species, 2nd edn. Unwin Hyman, London, UK.
  • Grime, J.P., Mason, G., Curtis, A.V., Rodman, J., Band, S.R., Mowforth, M.A.G., Neal, A.M. & Shaw, S. (1981) A comparative study of germination characteristics in a local flora. Journal of Ecology, 69, 10171059.
  • Harley, J.L. & Harley, E.L. (1987) A check-list of mycorrhiza in the British flora. New Phytologist, 105, 1102.
  • Hayes, F., Mills, G., Williams, P., Harmens, H. & Büker, P. (2006) Impacts of summer ozone exposure on the growth and overwintering of UK upland vegetation. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 40884097.
  • Hendry, G. (1987) The ecological significance of fructan in a contemporary flora. New Phytologist, 106, 201216.
  • Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D. & Roy, D.B. (2004) PLANTATT Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monkswood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, UK.
  • Hill, M.O., Mountford, J.O., Roy, D.B. & Bunce, R.G.H. (1999) Ellenberg’s indicator values for British plants: technical annex to ECOFACT volume 2. ECOFACT Research Report Series, pp. 46. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monkswood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, UK.
  • Hillier, S.H. (1984) A Quantitative Study of Gap Recolonization in Two Contrasted Limestone Grasslands. Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
  • Hoffmann, F. (2005) Biodiversity and Pollination. Flowering Plants and Flower-visiting Insects in Agricultural and Semi-natural Landscapes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
  • Hovstad, K.A. & Ohlson, M. (2008) Physical and chemical effects of litter on plant establishment in semi-natural grasslands. Plant Ecology, 196, 251260.
  • Hubac, J.M. (1972) Relations entre les dimensions du pollen et le niveau de polyploidie. Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France, 119, 279285.
  • Hultén, E. (1971) The circumpolar plants. II. Dicotyledons. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakade Handlingar, 13, 1463.
  • Hultén, E. & Fries, M. (1986) Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. North of the Tropic of Cancer. Koeltz, Königstein, Germany.
  • Husband, B.C. (2000) Constraints on polyploid evolution: a test of the minority cytotype exclusion principle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 267, 217223.
  • Hwang, B.C. & Lauenroth, W.K. (2008) Effect of nitrogen, water and neighbor density on the growth of Hesperis matronalis and two native perennials. Biological Invasions, 10, 771779.
  • Ince, J. (1983) Two postglacial pollen profiles from the uplands of Snowdonia, Gwynedd, North Wales. New Phytologist, 95, 159172.
  • Jeffree, E.P. (1960) Some long-term means from The Phenological Reports (1891–1948) of the Royal Meteorological Society. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 86, 95103.
  • Justesen, H., Andersen, A.S. & Brandt, K. (1997) Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavones during bud and flower development in Campanula isophylla Moretti. Annals of Botany, 79, 355360.
  • King, T.J. (1977) The plant ecology of ant-hills in calcareous grasslands: I. Patterns of species in relation to ant-hills in Southern England. Journal of Ecology, 65, 235256.
  • Knuth, P. (1909) Handbook of Flower Pollination based upon Herman Müller’s work ‘The Fertilisation of Flowers by Insects’, Vol. 3. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Kovačić, S. (2004) The genus Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) in Croatia, circum-Adriatic and west Balkan region. Acta Botanica Croatica, 63, 171202.
  • Kovačić, S. & Nikolic, T. (2006) Relations of the western Balkan endemic Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) lineages based on comparative floral morphometry. Plant Biosystems, 140, 260272.
  • Kovanda, M. (1970) Polyploidy and variation in the Campanula rotundifolia complex. Part 1. Rozpravy Československé akademie věd, Praha, 80, 195.
  • Kovanda, M. (1977) Polyploidy and variation in the Campanula rotundifolia complex. Part II. (Taxonomic) 2. revision of the groups Vulgares and Scheuchzerianae in Czechoslovakia and adjacent regions. Folia Geobotanica & Phytotaxonomica, 12, 2389.
  • Kytoviita, M.M., Vestberg, M. & Tuom, J. (2003) A test of mutual aid in common mycorrhizal networks: established vegetation negates benefit in seedlings. Ecology, 84, 898906.
  • Laane, M.M., Croff, B.E. & Wahlstrøm, R. (1983) Cytotype distribution in the Campanula rotundifolia complex in Norway, and cyto-morphological characteristics of diploid and tetraploid groups. Hereditas, 99, 2148.
  • Lammers, T.G. (1992) Circumscription and phylogeny of the Campanulales. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79, 388413.
  • Lindborg, R., Cousins, S.A.O. & Eriksson, O. (2005) Plant species response to land use change –Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor. Ecography, 28, 2936.
  • Löve, A. & Löve, D. (1965) Taxonomic remarks on some American alpine plants. University of Colorado Studies Series in Biology, 17, 143.
  • Mallik, A.U. & Gimingham, C.H. (1985) Ecological effects of heather burning: II. Effects on seed germination and vegetative regeneration. Journal of Ecology, 73, 633644.
  • Maskell, L.C., Smart, S.M., Bullock, J.M., Thompson, K. & Stevens, C.J. (2010) Nitrogen deposition causes widespread loss of species richness in British habitats. Global Change Biology, 16, 671679.
  • McAllister, H.A. (1972) The Experimental Taxonomy ofCampanula rotundifoliaL. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
  • McCutchan, C.L. & Monson, R.K. (2001a) Effects of tissue-type and development on dark respiration in two herbaceous perennials. Annals of Botany, 87, 355364.
  • McCutchan, C.L. & Monson, R.K. (2001b) Night-time respiration rate and leaf carbohydrate concentrations are not coupled in two alpine perennial species. New Phytologist, 149, 419430.
  • Meier, H. & Reid, J.S.G. (1982) Reserve polysaccharides other than starch in higher plants. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, Vol. 13A (ed. F.A. Loewus & W. Tanner), pp. 418471. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
  • Milberg, P. (1995) Soil seed bank after eighteen years of succession from grassland to forest. Oikos, 72, 313.
  • Morgan, D.C. & Smith, H. (1979) A systematic relationship between phytochrome-controlled development and species habitat, for plants grown in simulated natural radiation. Planta, 145, 253258.
  • Mowforth, M.A. (1986) Variation in Nuclear DNA Amounts in Flowering Plants: An Ecological Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
  • Müller, A., Diener, S., Schnyder, S., Stutz, K., Sedivy, C. & Dorn, S. (2006) Quantitative pollen requirements of solitary bees: implications for bee conservation and the evolution of bee-flower relationships. Biological Conservation, 130, 604615.
  • Nash, R.J., Watson, A.A. & Asano, N. (1996) Polyhydroxylated alkaloids that inhibit glycosidases. Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives (ed. S.W. Pelletier), pp. 345376. Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK.
  • Nash, R.J., Watson, A.A., Winters, A.L., Fleet, G.W.J., Wormald, M.R., Dealler, S., Lees, E., Asano, N. & Kizu, H. (1997) Novel biologically-active alkaloids from British plants. Phytochemical Diversity, a Source of New Industrial Products (eds S. Wrigley, M. Hayes, R. Thomas & E. Chrystal), pp. 106114. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.
  • Nilsson, L.A. (1983) Mimesis of bellflower (Campanula) by the red helleborine orchid Cephalanthera rubra. Nature, 305, 799800.
  • Nowicke, J.W., Shetler, S.G. & Morin, N. (1992) Exine structure of pantoporate Campanula (Campanulaceae) species. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79, 6580.
  • Nuortila, C., Kytoviita, M.M. & Tuomi, J. (2004) Mycorrhizal symbiosis has contrasting effects on fitness components in Campanula rotundifolia. New Phytologist, 164, 543553.
  • Nyman, Y. (1993) The pollen-collecting hairs of Campanula (Campanulaceae). II. Function and adaptive significance in relation to pollination. American Journal of Botany, 80, 14371443.
  • Oberdorfer, E. (1978) Süddeutsche Pflanzengesellschaften. Teil II, 2nd edn. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
  • Oppel, C.B., Dussourd, D.E. & Garimella, U. (2009) Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a Plusiine caterpillar. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 35, 625634.
  • Perring, F.H. & Walters, S.M. (1962) Atlas of the British Flora. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London, UK.
  • Poland, J. & Clement, E. (2009) The Vegetative Key to the British Flora. John Poland, in association with the Botanical Society of the British Isles, Southampton, UK.
  • Praz, C.J., Mueller, A. & Dorn, S. (2008) Specialized bees fail to develop on non-host pollen: do plants chemically protect their pollen? Ecology, 89, 795804.
  • Preston, C.D. & Hill, M.O. (1997) The geographical relationships of British and Irish vascular plants. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 124, 1120.
  • Preston, C.D., Pearman, D.A. & Dines, T.D. (2002) New Atlas of the British Isles Flora. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Roy, D.B., Warman, L.I.Z., Walker, K.J. & Rothery, P. (2003) Plant traits as predictors of performance in ecological restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 6577.
  • Rämö, K., Kanerva, T., Ojanperä, K. & Manninen, S. (2007) Growth onset, senescence, and reproductive development of meadow species in mesocosms exposed to elevated O3 and CO2. Environmental Pollution, 145, 850860.
  • Rea, M.W. (1921) Stomata and hydathodes in Campanula rotundifolia L., and their relation to environment. New Phytologist, 20, 5672.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1991a) British Plant Communities Volume 1: Woodlands and Scrub. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1991b) British Plant Communities Volume 2: Mires and Heaths. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1992) British Plant Communities Volume 3: Grasslands and Montane Communities. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (2000) British Plant Communities Volume 5: Maritime Communities and Vegetation of Open Habitats. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Roquet, C., Saez, L., Aldasoro, J.J., Susanna, A., Alarcon, M.L. & Garcia-Jacas, N. (2008) Natural delineation, molecular phylogeny and floral evolution in Campanula. Systematic Botany, 33, 203217.
  • Scannell, M.J.P. & Synott, D.M. (1987) Census Catalogue of the Flora of Ireland, 2nd edn. Stationery Office, Dublin, Ireland.
  • Schwanitz, F. & Hahn, H. (1954) Genetischentwicklungsphysiologische Untersuchungen an Galmeipflanzen. II. Uber Galmeibiotypen bei Linum catharticum L., Campanula rotundifolia L., Plantago lanceolata L. und Rumex acetosa L. Zeitschrift für Botanik, 42, 459471.
  • Sell, P. & Murrell, G. (2006) Flora of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 4 Campanulaceae – Asteraceae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Shetler, S.G. (1979) Pollen-collecting hairs of Campanula (Campanulaceae), I: Historical review. Taxon, 28, 205215.
  • Shetler, S.G. (1982) Variation and evolution of the Nearctic harebells (Campanula subsect. Heterophylla). J. Cramer, Vaduz, Liechtenstein.
  • Shimwell, D.W. & Laurie, A.E. (1972) Lead and zinc contamination of vegetation in the southern Pennines. Environmental Pollution, 3, 291301.
  • Shulkina, T.V., Gaskin, J.F. & Eddie, W.M.M. (2003) Morphological studies toward an improved classification of Campanulaceae s. str. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 90, 576591.
  • Smits, N., Willems, J. & Bobbink, R. (2008) Long-term after-effects of fertilisation on the restoration of calcareous grasslands. Applied Vegetation Science, 11, 279286.
  • Soons, M.B. & Ozinga, W.A. (2005) How important is long-distance seed dispersal for the regional survival of plant species? Diversity and Distributions, 11, 165172.
  • Sprengel, C.K. (1793) Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen. Berlin, Germany.
  • Stace, C. (2010) New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Stevens, C.J., Dise, N.B., Gowing, D.J.G. & Mountford, J.O. (2006) Loss of forb diversity in relation to nitrogen deposition in the UK: regional trends and potential controls. Global Change Biology, 12, 18231833.
  • Stevens, C.J., Duprè, C., Dorland, E., Gaudnik, C., Gowing, D.J.G., Bleeker, A. et al. (2010) Nitrogen deposition threatens species richness of grasslands across Europe. Environmental Pollution, 158, 29402945.
  • Stevens, C.J., Duprè, C., Gaudnik, C., Dorland, E., Dise, N.B., Gowing, D.J. et al. (2011) Changes in species composition of European acid grasslands observed along a gradient of nitrogen deposition. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22, 207215.
  • Stober, J.P. (1917) A comparative study of winter and summer leaves of various herbs. Botanical Gazette, 63, 89109.
  • Thompson, K., Bakker, J. & Bekker, R. (1997) The Soil Seed Banks of North West Europe: Methodology, Density and Longevity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Thompson, K. & Grime, J.P. (1979) Seasonal variation in the seed banks of herbaceous species in ten contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology, 67, 893921.
  • Thompson, K. & Grime, J.P. (1983) A comparative study of germination responses to diurnally fluctuating temperatures. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 141156.
  • Thompson, K., Hillier, S.H., Grime, J.P., Bossard, C.C. & Band, S.R. (1996) A functional analysis of a limestone grassland community. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 371380.
  • Thorhallsdottir, A.G. & Thorsteinsson, I. (1993) Behaviour and plant selection. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences, 7, 5977.
  • Thwaites, R.H., Ashmore, M.R., Morton, A.J. & Pakeman, R.J. (2006) The effects of tropospheric ozone on the species dynamics of calcareous grassland. Environmental Pollution, 144, 500509.
  • Trudgill, D.L., Squire, G.R. & Thompson, K. (2000) A thermal time basis for comparing the germination requirements of some British herbaceous plants. New Phytologist, 145, 107114.
  • Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.A., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (1976) Flora Europaea. Volume 4: Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Van den Berg, L.J.L., Vergeer, P., Rich, T.C.G., Smart, S.M., Guest, G. & Ashmore, M.R. (2010) Direct and indirect effects of nitrogen deposition on species composition change in calcareous grasslands. Global Change Biology, 17, 18711883.
  • Vergauwen, R., Van den Ende, W. & Van Laere, A. (2000) The role of fructan in flowering of Campanula rapunculoides. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 12611266.
  • Vidic, T., Greilhuber, J., Vilhar, B. & Dermastia, M. (2009) Selective significance of genome size in a plant community with heavy metal pollution. Ecological Applications, 19, 15151521.
  • Walker, K.J., Hodder, K.H., Bullock, J.B. & Pywell, R.F. (2004a) A review of the Potential Effects of Seed Sowing for Habitat Re-creation on the Conservation of Intraspecific Biodiversity. Defra Contract BD1447. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, UK.
  • Walker, K.J., Stevens, P.A., Stevens, D.P., Mountford, J.O., Manchester, S.J. & Pywell, R.F. (2004b) The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biological Conservation, 119, 118.
  • Watson, A.A., Fleet, G.W.J., Asano, N., Molyneux, R.J. & Nash, R.J. (2001) Polyhydroxylated alkaloids – natural occurrence and therapeutic applications. Phytochemistry, 56, 265295.
  • Whitlock, R., Grime, J.P., Booth, R. & Burke, T. (2007) The role of genotypic diversity in determining grassland community structure under constant environmental conditions. Journal of Ecology, 95, 895907.
  • Whittington, G., Edwards, K.J. & Caseldine, C.J. (1991) Late-glacial and postglacial pollen-analytical and environmental data from a near-coastal site in north-east Fife, Scotland. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 68, 6585.
  • Whittington, G., Edwards, K.J. & Hall, A.M. (2001) Vegetational stability and rare species from early Holocene Lewis. Botanical Journal of Scotland, 53, 121133.
  • Wielgolaski, F.E. (1999) Starting dates and basic temperatures in phenological observations of plants. International Journal of Biometeorology, 42, 158168.
  • Wielgolaski, F.E. (2001) Phenological modifications in plants by various edaphic factors. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45, 196202.
  • Wijesinghe, D.K., John, E.A., Beurskens, S. & Hutchings, M.J. (2001) Root system size and precision in nutrient foraging: responses to spatial pattern of nutrient supply in six herbaceous species. Journal of Ecology, 89, 972983.
  • Wolf, D. & Lundholm, J.T. (2008) Water uptake in green roof microcosms: effects of plant species and water availability. Ecological Engineering, 33, 179186.