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Development of the outcome expectancy scale for self-care among periodontal disease patients

Authors

  • Naoki Kakudate DDS PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Instructor, Division of Disease Control and Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Oral Growth and Development, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan and Researcher, Department of Epidemiology and Health Care Research, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Manabu Morita DDS PhD,

    1. Professor, Department of Oral Health, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan
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  • Shunichi Fukuhara MD MSc DMSc,

    1. Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Health Care Research, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
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  • Makoto Sugai DDS,

    1. Dentist, Nagayama Family Dental Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan and PhD student, Department of Dentistry for Children and Disabled Person, Division of Oral Functional Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
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  • Masato Nagayama DDS PhD,

    1. Director, Nagayama Family Dental Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan
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  • Emiko Isogai DVM PhD,

    1. Assistant Professor,
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  • Masamitsu Kawanami DDS PhD,

    1. Professor, Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Division of Oral Health Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido, Japan
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  • Itsuo Chiba DDS PhD

    1. Professor, Division of Disease Control and Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Oral Growth and Development, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Hokkaido, Japan
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Naoki Kakudate, Division of Disease Control and Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Oral Growth and Development, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293, Japan, E-mail: kakudate@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Rationale  The theory of self-efficacy states that specific efficacy expectations affect behaviour. Two types of efficacy expectations are described within the theory. Self-efficacy expectations are the beliefs in the capacity to perform a specific behaviour. Outcome expectations are the beliefs that carrying out a specific behaviour will lead to a desired outcome.

Objective  To develop and examine the reliability and validity of an outcome expectancy scale for self-care (OESS) among periodontal disease patients.

Methods  A 34-item scale was tested on 101 patients at a dental clinic. Accuracy was improved by item analysis, and internal consistency and test–retest stability were investigated. Concurrent validity was tested by examining associations of the OESS score with the self-efficacy scale for self-care (SESS) score and plaque index score. Construct validity was examined by comparing OESS scores between periodontal patients at initial visit (group 1) and those continuing maintenance care (group 2).

Results  Item analysis identified 13 items for the OESS. Factor analysis extracted three factors: social-, oral- and self-evaluative outcome expectancy. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the OESS was 0.90. A significant association was observed between test and retest scores, and between the OESS and SESS and plaque index scores. Further, group 2 had a significantly higher mean OESS score than group 1.

Conclusion  We developed a 13-item OESS with high reliability and validity which may be used to assess outcome expectancy for self-care. A patient's psychological condition with regard to behaviour and affective status can be accurately evaluated using the OESS with SESS.

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