A second type of freshwater crab reovirus has been isolated from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards, in China; we named it E. sinensis reovirus (EsRV816). The negatively stained virion is a non-enveloped icosahedral particle, 60 ± 5 nm in diameter. Its genome is composed of 10 dsRNA linear pieces exhibiting an electrophoretic pattern of 5/3/2. The largest segment (RNA-1) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence, corresponding to the RdRp of the virus, showed 26% identity with the RdRp of Operophtera brumata (L.) cypovirus 19 in the genus Cypovirus and 24% identity with RdRp of Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) reovirus in the genus Fijivirus. On the basis of its ultrastructure and physicochemical properties, this virus is quite different from other crab reoviruses, and particularly with another freshwater crab reovirus EsRV905, recently classified in a new genus Cardoreovirus. This virus (EsRV816) possesses all the characters of the members of the reoviridae family and could represent a new genus.