Dietary therapy has been proposed as a cost effective and noninvasive means of reducing the risk of prostate cancer (PC) and its progression. There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of PC. This article systematically reviews the data for dietary-based therapy in the prevention of PC, as well as in the management of patients with PC, aiming to provide clarity surrounding the role of diet in preventing and treating PC. Although conclusive evidence is limited, the current data are indicative that a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruits, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, excessive dairy products and calcium intake, is possibly effective in preventing PC. However, caution must be taken to ensure that members of the public do not take excessive amounts of dietary supplements because there may be adverse affects associated with their over consumption. The dietary recommendations for patients diagnosed with PC are similar to those aiming to reduce their risk of PC.