South Asian dietary patterns and their association with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome
Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
© 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume 26, Issue 2, pages 145–155, April 2013
How to Cite
2012) South Asian dietary patterns and their association with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. J Hum Nutr Diet. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-277X.2012.01284.x& (
- Issue published online: 12 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
- dietary acculturation;
- noncommunicable diseases;
- transition diet
Certain dietary patterns have been associated with higher risk of noncommunicable diseases, with South Asians identified as a high-risk group. The present study aimed to identify the association between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in South Asians living in the UK.
Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 15 different food groups using an ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaire. MS risk factors, including obesity and hypertension, were measured, whereas existing conditions of dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia were self-reported. Participants (n = 100) were divided into quartiles based on dietary factor scores and the link between dietary patterns and risk factors was investigated.
Three different patterns were derived, which together explained 46% of the total diet variation; eastern pattern, mixed pattern and western pattern. An inverse correlation was found between the eastern pattern and education P = 0.05). A direct correlation was found between the western pattern and physical activity (P = 0.05) and the overall risk of MS (P = 0.05). Body composition was altered as residence time in the UK increased, with a reduction in muscle mass (29–26%) and an increase in body fat (31–37%). Diagnosis criteria for MS were found in 20% of the participants.
Dietary acculturation, including a reduction in vegetarianism, an increased intake of caffeinated drinks and altered meal patterns, may be associated with the higher prevalence of MS in migrant South Asians in the UK.