Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective


  • Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Prof. Barbara J. M. Mulder, room B2-240, PO Box Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, the Netherlands (e-mail:


This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skilful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and thyroid-related cardiac impairment in patients with Down syndrome will be discussed.