Defining and applying a functionality approach to intellectual disability
Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
Volume 57, Issue 7, pages 657–668, July 2013
How to Cite
Luckasson, R. and Schalock, R. L. (2013), Defining and applying a functionality approach to intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57: 657–668. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2012.01575.x
- Issue published online: 20 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012
- Accepted 17 April 2012
- functionality approach;
- human functioning outcomes;
- intellectual disability;
- systems of supports
Background The current functional models of disability do not adequately incorporate significant changes of the last three decades in our understanding of human functioning, and how the human functioning construct can be applied to clinical functions, professional practices and outcomes evaluation.
Methods The authors synthesise current literature on human functioning dimensions, systems of supports and approaches to outcomes evaluation for persons with intellectual disability (ID), and propose a functionality approach that encompasses a systems perspective towards understanding human functioning in ID. The approach includes human functioning dimensions, interactive systems of supports and human functioning outcomes.
Results Based on this functionality approach the authors: (1) describe how such an approach can be applied to clinical functions related to defining ID, assessment, classification, supports planning and outcomes evaluation; and (2) discuss the impact of a functionality approach on professional practices in the field of ID.
Conclusions A functionality approach can increase focus on the integrative nature of human functioning, provide unified language, align clinical functions and encourage evidence-based practices. The approach incorporates a holistic view of human beings and their lives, and can positively affect supports provision and evaluation.