Both authors contributed equally
Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women
Article first published online: 14 MAY 2004
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 255, Issue 6, pages 645–652, June 2004
How to Cite
Agardh, E. E., Carlsson, S., Ahlbom, A., Efendic, S., Grill, V., Hammar, N., Hilding, A. and Östenson, C.-G. (2004), Coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish men and women. Journal of Internal Medicine, 255: 645–652. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01331.x
- Issue published online: 14 MAY 2004
- Article first published online: 14 MAY 2004
- cross-sectional studies;
- glucose intolerance;
- type 2 diabetes mellitus
Objectives. The association between coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was examined. In addition, indicators of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function according to homeostasis model assessment were studied in relation to coffee consumption.
Design. Population-based cross-sectional study.
Setting and subjects. The study comprised 7949 healthy Swedish subjects aged 35–56 years residing within five municipalities of Stockholm. An oral glucose tolerance test identified 55 men and 52 women with previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and 172 men and 167 women with impaired glucose tolerance. Information about coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by questionnaire.
Results. The relative risks (adjusted for potential confounders) of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance when drinking ≥5 cups of coffee per day compared with ≤2 cups per day in men were 0.45 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.22–0.92] and 0.63 (CI: 0.41–0.97), respectively, and in women 0.27 (CI: 0.11–0.66) and 0.47 (CI: 0.29–0.76) respectively. In subjects with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, high coffee consumption (≥5 cups day−1) was inversely associated with insulin resistance. In addition, in those with type 2 diabetes and in women (not in men) with impaired glucose tolerance high coffee consumption was inversely associated with low β-cell function. In women, but not obviously in men, with normal glucose tolerance, coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance.
Conclusions. The results of this study indicated that high consumers of coffee have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The beneficial effects may involve both improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced insulin response.