Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

Authors

  • J. C. Verhave,

    1. From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine
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  • H. L. Hillege,

    1. Cardiology
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  • J. G. M. Burgerhof,

    1. Epidemiology and Statistics
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  • W. M. T. Janssen,

    1. From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine
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  • R. T. Gansevoort,

    1. From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine
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  • G. J. Navis,

    1. From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine
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  • D. de Zeeuw,

    1. Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen University Institute of Drug Exploration (GUIDE), Groningen, The Netherlands
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  • P. E. de Jong,

    1. From the Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine
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  • The PREVEND study group

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    • *

      The PREVEND study group are: P. E. de Jong, G. J. Navis,
      R. T. Gansevoort, J. C. Verhave
      Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology
      D. de Zeeuw, W. H. van Gilst, R. H. Henning
      Department of Clinical Pharmacology
      R. O. B. Gans, S. J. L. Bakker, A. J. Smit, A. M. van Roon,
      E. M. Stuveling
      Department of Medicine, Division of Vascular Medicine
      D. J. van Veldhuisen, H. L. Hillege, A. J. van Boven,
      F. W. Asselbergs, C. P. Baljé-Volkers
      Department of Cardiology
      R. P. F. Dullaart
      Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology
      G. J. te Meerman, G. T. Spijker
      Department of Medical Genetics
      V. Fidler, J. G. M. Burgerhof
      Department of Epidemiology and Statistics
      L. T. W. de Jong-van den Berg, M. J. Postma, J. van den Berg
      Department of Pharmaco-Epidemiology
      J. H. J. Muntinga
      Department of Medical Physiology, all of the University Medical Center Groningen
      and D. E. Grobbee
      Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center, Utrecht.


P. E. de Jong MD, PhD, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.
(fax: +0031 50 3619310; e-mail: p.e.de.jong@int.azg.nl).

Summary.

Objectives.  To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Design.  Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis.

Setting.  University hospital outpatient clinic.

Subjects.  A cohort drawn from the general population, consisting of 7850 subjects 28–75 years of age, all inhabitants of the city of Groningen, the Netherlands. The cohort is enriched for the presence of subjects with elevated urinary albumin concentration.

Results.  The results show a positive relationship between dietary sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion. The association was independent of other cardiovascular risk factors (such as sex, age, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, serum cholesterol, plasma glucose and smoking) and other food constituents (calcium, potassium and protein). The relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion was steeper in subjects with a higher BMI compared with a lower BMI.

Conclusions.  Sodium intake is positively related to urinary albumin excretion. This relation is more pronounced in subjects with a higher BMI. These results suggest that high sodium intake may unfavourably influences cardiovascular prognosis especially in overweight and obese subjects.

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