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Keywords:

  • body composition;
  • cross-sectional studies;
  • diet;
  • middle-aged;
  • myocardial infarction/rehabilitation;
  • nutrition

Abstract.

Objective.  Comparing habitual nutrient intakes in persons with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and age-matched controls.

Design.  Cross-sectional study.

Subjects.  Men and women (525 cases and 1890 matched controls), aged 47–73 years, of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort.

Methods.  Nutrient intakes were assessed by a validated modified diet history method. Body fatness was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Case ascertainment was provided by national and regional registries. Men and women were analysed separately. Median time since AMI was 5.5 years in men and 3.8 years in women. Cases reported lower energy intakes (EIs) than controls, despite having similar basal metabolic rates. After adjustment for total EI, both male and female cases had lower fat intake and higher intake of several micronutrients, such as ascorbic acid, folate, and vitamin E, than controls, the difference being largest in men. Most of the cases reporting dietary change quoted ‘disease’ as their main reason for change. They had lower EI and lower energy-adjusted intake of fat than other cases.

Conclusions.  Survivors of AMI reported dietary habits more in line with current recommendations, particularly those who afterwards reported having changed their dietary habits. The possible bias introduced by social desirability is discussed.