• 1
    van Staa T-P, Leufkens HGM, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C. Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses. Rheumatology 2000; 39: 13839.
  • 2
    Rüegsegger P, Medici TC, Anliker M. Corticosteroid-induced bone loss. A longitudinal study of alternate day therapy in patients with bronchial asthma using quantitative computed tomography. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 25: 61520.
  • 3
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Oden A et al. A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 2004; 19: 8939.
  • 4
    Kozower M, Veatch L, Kaplan MM. Decreased clearance of prednisolone, a factor in the development of corticosteroid side effects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1974; 38: 40712.
  • 5
    Stevens A, Ray DW, Zeggini E et al. Glucocorticoid sensitivity is determined by a specific glucocorticoid receptor haplotype. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 8927.
  • 6
    Suissa S, Ernst P, Benayoun S, Baltzan M, Cai B. Low dose inhaled corticosteroids and the prevention of death from asthma. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 3326.
  • 7
    Richy F, Bousquet J, Ehrlich GE et al. Inhaled corticosteroids effects on bone in asthmatic and COPD patients: a quantitative systematic review. Osteoporos Int 2003; 14: 17990.
  • 8
    Hubbard RB, Smith CJP, Smeeth L, Harrison TW, Tattersfield AE. Inhaled corticosteroids and hip fracture. A population-based case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 15636.
  • 9
    van Staa TP, Leufkens HGM, Cooper C. Use of inhaled corticosteroids and risk of fractures. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16: 5818.
  • 10
    van Staa T-P, Bishop N, Leufkens HGM, Cooper C. Are inhaled corticosteroids associated with an increased risk of fracture in children? Osteoporos Int 2004; 15: 78591.
  • 11
    Morris HA, Need AG, O'Loughlin PD, Horowitz M, Bridges A, Nordin BEC. Malabsorption of calcium in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1990; 46: 3058.
  • 12
    Suzuki Y, Ichikawa Y, Saito E, Homma M. Importance of increased urinary calcium excretion in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism of patients under glucocorticoid therapy. Metabolism 1983; 32: 1516.
  • 13
    Silve C, Fritsch J, Grosse B et al. Corticosteroid-induced changes in the responsiveness of human osteoblast-like cells to parathyroid hormone. Bone Miner 1989; 6: 6575.
  • 14
    Bressot C, Meunier PJ, Chapuy MC, Lejeune E, Edouard C, Darby AJ. Histomorphometric profile, pathophysiology and reversibility of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Metab Bone Dis Relat Res 1979; 1: 30311.
  • 15
    Weinstein RS, Jilka RL, Parfitt AM, Manolagas SC. Inhibition of osteoblastogenesis and promotion of apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes by glucocorticoids. Potential mechanisms of their deleterious effects on bone. J Clin Invest 1998; 102: 27482.
  • 16
    Hofbauer LC, Gori F, Riggs BL et al. Stimulation of osteoprotegerin ligand and inhibition of osteoprotegerin production by glucocorticoids in human osteoblastic lineage cells: potential paracrine mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Endocrinology 1999; 140: 43829.
  • 17
    MacAdams MR, White RH, Chipps BE. Reduction of serum testosterone levels during chronic glucocorticoid therapy. Ann Intern Med 1986; 104: 64851.
  • 18
    Compston JE, Audran M, Avouac B et al. Recommendations for the registration of agents used in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 1996; 59: 3237.
  • 19
    Guidelines Writing Group. Consensus UK on the prevention and treatment of GC-OP. Royal College of Physicians of London, 2002 (accessed on 12 July, 2005).
  • 20
    Maricic M, Gluck O. Densitometry in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. J Clin Densitom 2004; 7: 35963.
  • 21
    Felsenberg D, Boonen S. The bone quality framework: determinants of bone strength and their interrelationships and implications for osteoporosis management. Clin Therapeut 2005; 27: 111.
  • 22
    Borah B, Dufresne TE, Chmielewski PA, Johnson TD, Chines A, Manhart MD. Risedronate preserves bone architecture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis as measured by three-dimensional microcomputed tomography. Bone 2004; 34: 73646.
  • 23
    Hans D, Dargent-Molina P, Schott A. Ultrasonographic heel measurements to predict hip fracture in the elderly. Lancet 1996; 348: 5114.
  • 24
    Bauer D, Glüer C, Cauley J. Bone ultrasound predicts fractures strongly and independently of densitometry in older women: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 62934.
  • 25
    Boonen S, Nijs J, Borghs H, Peeters H, Vanderschueren D, Luyten FP. Identifying postmenopausal women with osteoporosis by calcaneal ultrasound, metacarpal digital X-ray radiogrammetry and phalangeal radiographic absorptiometry: a comparative study. Osteoporos Int 2005; 16: 93100.
  • 26
    Tavakoli MB, Evans JA. The effect of bone structure on ultrasonic attenuation and velocity. Ultrasonics 1992; 6: 38995.
  • 27
    Glüer CC, Wu CY, Genant HK. Broadband ultrasound attenuation signals depend on trabecular orientation: an in vitro study. Osteoporos Int 1993; 3: 18591.
  • 28
    Glüer CC, Wu CY, Jergas M, Goldstein SA, Genant HK. Three quantitative ultrasound parameters reflect bone structure. Calcif Tissue Int 1994; 55: 4652.
  • 29
    Hans D, Arlot ME, Schott AM, Roux JP, Kotzki PO, Meunier PJ. Do ultrasound measurements on the os calcis reflect more the bone microarchitecture than the bone mass?: a two-dimensional histomorphometric study. Bone 1995; 16: 295300.
  • 30
    Nicholson PHF, Müller R, Lowet G et al. Do quantitative ultrasound measurements reflect structure independently of density in human vertebral cancellous bone? Bone 1998; 23: 42531.
  • 31
    Hausler KD, Rich PA, Smith PC, Barry EB. Relationship between static histomorphometry and ultrasound in the human calcaneus. Calcif Tissue Int 1999; 64: 47780.
  • 32
    Langton CM, Njeh CF, Hodgskinson R, Currey JD. Prediction of mechanical properties of the human calcaneus by broadband ultrasound attenuation. Bone 1996; 18: 495503.
  • 33
    Nicholson PHF, Müller R, Cheng XG et al. Quantitative ultrasound and trabecular architecture in the human calcaneus. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16: 188692.