• 1
    Büller HR, Agnelli G, Hull RD, Hyers TH, Prins MH, Raskob GE. Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolic disease: the seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 338S409S.
  • 2
    Hackam DG, Anand SS, Yusuf S. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Semin Vasc Med 2003; 3: 32332.
  • 3
    Singer DE, Albers GW, Dalen JE, Go AS, Halpern JL, Manning WJ. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: the seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 429S56S.
  • 4
    Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Wintzen AR et al. Optimal oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves. N Engl Med J 1995; 333: 117.
  • 5
    Levine MN, Raskob G, Beyth RJ, Kearon C, Shulman S. Hemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant treatment. the seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 311S37S.
  • 6
    Landefeld CS, Beyth RJ. Anticoagulant-related bleeding: clinical epidemiology, prediction, and prevention. Am J Med 1993; 95: 31528.
  • 7
    Hurlen M, Erikssen J, Smith P, Arnesen H, Rollag H. Comparison of bleeding complications of warfarin and warfarin plus acetylsalicylic acid: a study in 3166 outpatients. J Intern Med 1994; 236: 299304.
  • 8
    Steffensen FH, Kristensen K, Ejlersen E, Dahlerup JF, Sor HT. Major haemorrhagic complications during oral anticoagulant therapy in a Danish population-based cohort. J Intern Med 1997; 242: 497503.
  • 9
    Chiquette E, Amato MG, Bussey HI. Comparison of an anticoagulation clinic with usual medical care: anticoagulation control, patient outcomes, health care costs. Arch Intern Med 1998; 168: 164147.
  • 10
    Poli D, Antonucci E, Lombardi A et al. Low rate of bleeding and thrombotic complications of oral anticoagulant therapy independent of age in the real-practice of an anticoagulation policlinic. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2003; 14: 26975.
  • 11
    Palareti G, Leali N, Coccheri S et al. Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT). Lancet 1996; 348: 4238.
  • 12
    Fang MC, Chang Y, Hylek EM et al. Advanced age, anticoagulaqtion intensity, and risk for intracranial hemorrhage among patients taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Ann Int Med 2004; 141: 74552.
  • 13
    Launbjerg J, Egeblad H, Heaf J, Nielsen NH, Fugleholm AM, Ladefoged K. Bleeding complications to oral anticoagulant therapy: multivariate analysis of 1010 treatment years in 551 outpatients. J Intern Med 1991; 229: 3515.
  • 14
    Landefeld CS, McGuire E, III, Rosenblatt MW. A bleeding risk index for estimating the probability of major bleeding in hospitalized patients starting anticoagulant therapy. Am J Med 1990; 89: 56978.
  • 15
    Pinede L, Duhaut P, Cucherat M, Ninet J, Pasquier J, Boissel JP. Comparison of long versus short duration of anticoagulant therapy after a first episode of venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. J Intern Med 2000; 247: 55362.
  • 16
    Bates SM, Ginsberg JS. Treatment of deep-vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 26877.
  • 17
    Prins MH, Hutten BA, Koopman MMW, Büller HR. Long-term treatment of venous thromboembolic disease. Thromb Haemost 1999; 82: 8928.
  • 18
    Schulman S, Rhedin AS, Lindmarker P et al. A comparison of six weeks with six months of oral anticoagulation therapy after a first episode of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 16615.
  • 19
    Schulman S, Granquist S, Holmström M et al. The duration of oral anticoagulation therapy after a second episode of venous throemboembolism. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 3938.
  • 20
    Schulman S. Duration of anticoagulants in acute or recurrent venous thromboembolism. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2000; 6: 3215.
  • 21
    Kearon C, Gent M, Hirsh J et al. A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 9017.
  • 22
    Prandoni P, Lensin AW, Cogo A et al. The long-term clinical course of acute deep venous thrombosis. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 17.
  • 23
    Prandoni P, Lensing AWA, Piccoli A et al. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and bleeding complications during anticoagulant treatment in patients with cancer and venous thrombosis. Blood 2002; 100: 348488.
  • 24
    Hart RG, Benavente O, McBride R et al. Antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 492501.
  • 25
    Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation: a major contributor to stroke in the elderly: The Framingham Heart Study. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 15614.
  • 26
    EAFT (European Atrial Fibrillation Trial) study group. Secondary prevention in non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation after transient ischemic attack or minor stroke. Lancet 1993; 342: 125562.
  • 27
    Smith P, Arnesen H, Holme I. The effect of warfarin on mortality and reinfarction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 14752.
  • 28
    Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Briët E. Thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Circulation 1994; 89: 63541.
  • 29
    Hallas J, Harvald B, Gram LF et al. Drug related hospital admissions: the role of definitions and intensity of data collection, and the possibility of prevention. J Int Med 1990; 228: 8390.
  • 30
    Rosendaal FR, Cannegieter SC, van den Meer FJ, Briet E. A method to determine the optimal intensity of oral anticoagulant therapy. Thromb Haemost 1993; 69: 2369.
  • 31
    Stein PD, Alpert JS, Copeland J, Dalen JE, Goldman S, Turpie AGG. Antithrombotic therapy in patients with mechanical and biological prosthetic heart valves. Chest 1992; 102 (Suppl.): 445S54S.
  • 32
    Ansell J, Hirsh J, Poller L, Bussey H, Jacobson A, Hylek E. The pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists. The seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Chest 2004; 126: 204S33S.
  • 33
    Schulman S. Care of patients receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 67583.
  • 34
    Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA et al. Effectiveness and safety of warfarin to prevent thromboembolism among 13 559 patients with atrial fibrillation: how well do results of randomised trials apply to clinical practice? The ATRIA study. JAMA 2003; 290 : 268592.
  • 35
    Pengo V, Barbero F, Banzato A et al. A comparison of moderate with moderate-high intensity if oral anticoagulant treatment in patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis. Thromb Haemost 1997; 77: 83944.
  • 36
    Anand SS, Yusuf S. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999; 282: 205867.