• 1
    Phillips DIW. Endocrine programming and fetal origins of adult disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002; 13: 363.
  • 2
    Clark PM, Hindmarsh PC, Sheill AW, Law CM, Honour JW, Barker DJP. Size at birth and adrenocortical function in childhood. Clin Endocrinol 1996; 45: 7216.
  • 3
    Phillips DIW, Barker DJP, Fall CHD et al. Elevated plasma cortisol concentrations: A link between low birth weight and the insulin resistance syndrome? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 75760.
  • 4
    Phillips DIW, Walker BR, Reynolds RM et al. Low birthweight predicts elevated plasma cortisol concentrations in adults from three populations. Hypertension 2000; 35: 13016.
  • 5
    Van Montfoort N, Finken MJ, Le Cessie S, Dekker FW, Wit JM. Could cortisol explain the association between birth weight and cardiovascular disease in later life? A meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 153: 8117.
  • 6
    Reynolds RM, Walker BR, Syddall HE, Wood PJ, Phillips DIW, Whorwood CB. Altered control of cortisol secretion in adult men with low birthweight and cardiovascular risk factors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 24550.
  • 7
    Reynolds RM, Walker BR, Syddall HE, Andrew R, Wood PJ, Phillips DI. Is there a gender difference in the associations of birthweight and adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity? Eur J Endocrinol 2005; 152: 24953.
  • 8
    Levitt NS, Lambert E, Woods D, Hales CN, Andrew R, Seckl JR. Impaired glucose tolerance and elevated blood pressure in low birthweight, non-obese, young South African adults: early programming of cortisol axis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 46118.
  • 9
    Fall CHD, Dennison E, Cooper C, Pringle J, Kellingray S, Hindmarsh P. Does birth weight predict adult serum cortisol concentrations? Twenty-four-hour profiles in the UK 1920–1930 Hertfordshire birth cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 20017.
  • 10
    Svendsen OL, Hassager C, Bergmann I, Christiansen C. Measurement of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat in postmenopausdal women by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry: comparison with computerised tomography. Int J Obes 1993; 17: 4551.
  • 11
    Kajantie E, Eriksson J, Osmond C et al. Size at birth, the metabolic syndrome and 24-h salivary cortisol profile. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2004; 60: 2017.
  • 12
    Ward AM, Syddall HE, Wood PJ, Chrousos GP, Phillips DI. Fetal programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: low birth weight and central HPA regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 122733.
  • 13
    Nilsson P, Nyberg P, Ostergren P-O. Increased susceptibility to stress at a psychological assessment of stress tolerance is associated with impaired fetal growth. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30: 7580.
  • 14
    Ward AM, Moore VM, Steptoe A, Cockington RA, Robinson JS, Phillips DI. Size at birth and cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors: evidence for prenatal programming in women. J Hypertens 2004; 22: 2295301.
  • 15
    Jones A, Beda A, Ward AM et al. Autonomic nervous system and baroreflex function differs in women who were small at birth, increasing their cardiovascular responses to stressors. Pediatr Res 2005; 58: 1022.
  • 16
    Matthews KA, Katholi CR, McCreath H et al. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA study. Circulation 2004; 110: 748.
  • 17
    Jones A, Godfrey KM, Wood P, Osmond C, Goulden P, Phillips DI. Fetal growth and the adrenocortical response to psychological stress. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006; 91: 186871.
  • 18
    Lahti J, Raikkonen K, Kajantie E et al. Small body size at birth and behavioural symptoms of ADHD in children aged five to six years. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006; 47: 116774.
  • 19
    Schlotz W, Phillips DI, Godfrey KM, Jones A. Small size at birth is associated with indicators of increased hyperactivity reduced attention and reduced effortful control in young children. Pediatr Res 2005; 58: 1014.
  • 20
    Fernald LC, Grantham-McGregor SM. Stress response in school-age children who have been growth retarded since early childhood. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 6918.
  • 21
    Fernald LC, Grantham-McGregor SM. Growth retardation is associated with changes in the stress response system and school-aged Jamaican children. J Nutr 2002; 132: 36749.
  • 22
    Sheill AW, Campbell-Brown M, Hasleden S, Robinson S, Godfrey KM, Barker DJP. High-meat, low-carbohydrate diet in pregnancy: relation to adult blood pressure in the offspring. Hypertension 2001; 38: 12828.
  • 23
    Herrick K, Phillips DIW, Sheill A, Hasleden S, Godfrey KM. Maternal consumption of a high meat, low carbohydrate diet in late pregnancy: relation to adult cortisol concentrations in the offspring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 355460.
  • 24
    Roseboom TJ, Van Der Meulen JH, Osmond C et al. Coronary heart disease after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine, 1944–45. Heart 2000; 84: 5958.
  • 25
    De Rooij SR, Painter RC, Phillips DI et al. Cortisol responses to psychological stress in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006; 31: 125665.
  • 26
    Painter RC, De R Sr, Bossuyt PM et al. Blood pressure response to psychological stressors in adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. J Hypertens 2006; 24: 17718.
  • 27
    De Rooij SR, Painter RC, Phillips DI et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in adults who were prenatally exposed to the Dutch famine. Eur J Endocrinol 2006; 155: 15360.
  • 28
    Kajantie E, Phillips DIW, Andersson S et al. Size at birth, gestational age and cortisol secretion in adult life: fetal programming of both hyper- and hypocortisolism? Clin Endocrinol 2002; 57: 63541.
  • 29
    Yehuda R, Engel SM, Brand SR, Seckl J, Marcus SM, Berkowitz GS. Transgenerational effects of posttraumatic stress disorder in babies of mothers exposed to the World Trade Center attacks during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 41158.
  • 30
    Björntorp P. Insulin resistance: the consequence of a neuroendocrine disturbance? Int J Obes 1995; 19(Suppl. 1): S6S10.
  • 31
    Phillips DI. Fetal programming of the neuroendocrine response to stress: links between low birth weight and the metabolic syndrome. Endocr Res 2004; 30: 81926.
  • 32
    Everson SA, Lynch JW, Chesney MA et al. Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis: population based study. Br Med J 1997; 314: 5538.
  • 33
    Kamark TW, Eranen J, Jennings JR et al. Anticipatory blood pressure responses to exercise are associated with left ventricular mass in Finnish men: Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Circulation 2000; 102: 13949.
  • 34
    Allen MT, Matthews KA, Sherman FS. Cardiovascular reactivity to stress and left ventricular mass in youth. Hypertension 1997; 30: 7827.
  • 35
    Treiber FA, Turner JR, Davis H, Thompson W, Levy M, Strong WB. Young children's cardiovascular stress responses predict resting cardiovascular functioning 2 1/2 years later. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996; 3: 95100.
  • 36
    Menkes MS, Matthews KA, Krantz DS et al. Cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor test as a predictor of hypertension. Hypertension 1989; 14: 52430.
  • 37
    Westendorp RG, Kirkwood TB. Human longevity at the cost of reproductive success. Nature 1998; 396: 7436.
  • 38
    Flatt T, Tu MP, Tatar M. Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history. Bioessays 2005; 27: 9991010.
  • 39
    Worthman CM, Kuzara J. Life history and the early origins of health differentials. Am J Hum Biol 2005; 17: 95112.