• 1
    Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease. Br Med J 1997; 314: 166674.
  • 2
    Pisa Z, Uemura K. Trends of mortality from ischaemic heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases in 27 countries, 1968–1977. World Health Stat Q 1982; 35: 1147.
  • 3
    Barker DJP, Osmond C. Diet and coronary heart disease in England and Wales during and after the Second World War. J Epidemiol Community Health 1986; 40: 3744.
  • 4
    Registrar General. Registrar General's Statistical Review of England and Wales. Part 1. Tables, Medical. London: HMSO, 1911 and following years.
  • 5
    Ryle JA, Russell WT. The natural history of coronary disease. A clinical and epidemiological study. Br Heart J 1949; 11: 37089.
  • 6
    Morris JN. Recent history of coronary disease. Lancet 1951; i: 17.
  • 7
    Gardner MJ, Crawford MD, Morris JN. Patterns of mortality in middle and early old age in the county boroughs of England and Wales. Br J Prev Soc Med 1969; 23: 13340.
  • 8
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Registrar General's Decennial Supplement, Occupational Mortality, England and Wales 1970–72. London: HMSO, 1978.
  • 9
    Keys A. Seven Countries. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.
  • 10
    Rose G, Marmot MG. Social class and coronary heart disease. Br Heart J 1981; 45: 139.
  • 11
    Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol 1985; 14: 328.
  • 12
    Barker DJP, Osmond C. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet 1986; 1: 107781.
  • 13
    Gardner MJ, Winter PD, Barker DJP. Atlas of Mortality from Selected Diseases in England and Wales, 1968–78. Chichester: John Wiley, 1984.
  • 14
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. London: HMSO, 1990.
  • 15
    Forsdahl A. Are poor housing conditions in childhood and adolescence an important risk factor for arteriosclerotic heart disease? Br J Prev Soc Med 1977; 31: 9195.
  • 16
    Notkola V. Living Conditions in Childhood and Coronary Heart Disease in Adulthood. Helsinki: Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters, 1985.
  • 17
    Buck C, Simpson H. Infant diarrhoea and subsequent mortality from heart disease and cancer. J Epidemiol Community Health 1982; 36: 2730.
  • 18
    Rose G. Familial patterns in ischaemic heart disease. Br J Prev Soc Med 1964; 18: 7580.
  • 19
    Marmot MG, Shipley MJ, Rose G. Inequalities in death – specific explanations of a general pattern? Lancet 1984; 1: 10036.
  • 20
    Hinkle LE, Coronary heart disease and sudden death in actively employed American men. Bull N Y Acad Med 1973; 49: 46774.
  • 21
    Woolf B. Studies on infant mortality: part II, social aetiology of stillbirths and infant deaths in country boroughs in England and Wales. Br J Soc Med 1947; 2: 73125.
  • 22
    Barker DJP, Osmond C, Law CM. The intrauterine and early postnatal origins of cardiovascular disease and chronic bronchitis. J Epidemiol Community Health 1989; 43: 23740.
  • 23
    Local Government Board. Thirty-ninth Annual Report 1909–10. Supplement on Infant and Child Mortality. London: HMSO, 1910.
  • 24
    Barker DJP. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 1995; 311: 1714.
  • 25
    West-Eberhard MJ. Phenotype plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 1989; 20: 249.
  • 26
    Barker DJP, Osmond C, Winter PD, Margetts BM, Simmonds SJ. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1989; 2: 57780.
  • 27
    Osmond C, Barker DJP, Winter PD, Fall CHD, Simmonds SJ. Early growth and death from cardiovascular disease in women. BMJ 1993; 307: 151924.
  • 28
    Frankel T, Osmond C, Sweetnam P, Yarnell J, Smith GD. Birthweight, body mass index in middle age, and incident coronary heart disease. Lancet 1996; 348: 147880.
  • 29
    Stein CE, Fall CHD, Kumaran K, Osmond C, Cox V, Barker DJP. Fetal growth and coronary heart disease in South India. Lancet 1996; 348: 126973.
  • 30
    Rich-Edwards JW, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE et al. Birth weight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up ‘ 1976. BMJ 1976; 315: 396400.
  • 31
    Forsen T, Eriksson JG, Tuomilehto J, Teramo K, Osmond C, Barker DJP. Mother's weight in pregnancy and coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: follow up study. Br Med J 1997; 315: 83740.
  • 32
    Leon DA, Lithell HO, Vagero D et al. Reduced fetal growth rate and increased risk of death from ischaemic heart disease: cohort study of 15 000 Swedish men and women born 1915–29. BMJ 1998; 317: 2415.
  • 33
    Forsen T, Osmond C, Eriksson JG, Barker DJP. Growth of girls who later develop coronary heart disease. Heart 2004; 90: 2024.
  • 34
    Barker DJP, Osmond C, Forsén TJ, Kajantie E, Eriksson JG. Trajectories of growth among children who have coronary events as adults. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 18029.
  • 35
    Martyn CN, Barker DJP, Osmond C. Mothers’ pelvic size, fetal growth and death from stroke in men. Lancet 1996; 348: 126468.
  • 36
    Rich-Edwards JW, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE et al. Birth weight and risk of cardiovascular disease in a cohort of women followed up since 1976. BMJ 1997; 315: 396400.
  • 37
    Eriksson JG, Forsen T, Tuomilehto MD, Osmond C, Barker DJP. Early growth, adult income and risk of stroke. Stroke 2000; 31: 86974.
  • 38
    Hypponen E, Leon DA, Kenward MG, Lithell H. Prenatal growth and risk of occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke in Swedish men and women born in 1915–29: historical cohort study. BMJ 2001; 323: 10334.
  • 39
    Lawlor DA, Ronalds G, Clark H, Smith GD, Leon DA. Birth weight is inversely associated with incident coronary heart disease and stroke among individuals born in the 1950s: findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s prospective cohort study. Circulation 2005; 112: 14148.
  • 40
    Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ et al. Primary prevention of ischaemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: Cosponsored by the atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease interdisciplinary working group; cardiovascular nursing council; clinical cardiology council; nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism council, and the quality of care and outcomes research interdisciplinary working group. Stroke 2006; 37: 1583633.
  • 41
    Osmond C, Kajantie E, Forsen T, Eriksson J, Barker DJP. Infant growth and stroke in adult life: the Helsinki birth cohort study. Stroke 2007; 38: 26470.
  • 42
    Barker DJP, Forsén T, Uutela A, Osmond C, Eriksson JG. Size at birth and resilience to effects of poor living conditions in adult life: longitudinal study. Br Med J 2001; 323: 12736.