Evidence based goals for the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetes are given in international and national guidelines. The importance of optimal control of lipids and blood pressure has been shown in several studies. With available drugs and behavioural modifications the treatment goals can be reached in most cases. However, only a few patients with diabetes are treated optimally today. A major possibility to reduce cardiovascular disease in diabetes is to treat patients according to guidelines.
New treatment targets may include specific treatment of the dyslipidaemia, manifested in high levels of small dense LDL and low HDL, active anti-inflammatory treatments, specific reduction of inflammatory activity in adipose tissue, reduced volume of adipose tissue, antioxidants and reduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts production. Possible strategies for these treatments are available, and should be evaluated in clinical trials.