• 1
    Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 2006; 17: 412.
  • 2
    Ross R. Atherosclerosis – an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 11526.
  • 3
    O’Brien KD, Chait A. Serum amyloid A: the “other” inflammatory protein. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2006; 8: 628.
  • 4
    Uhlar CM, Whitehead AS. Serum amyloid A, the major vertebrate acute-phase reactant. Eur J Biochem 1999; 265: 50123.
  • 5
    Johnson BD, Kip KE, Marroquin OC et al. Serum amyloid A as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular outcome in women: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). Circulation 2004; 109: 72632.
  • 6
    Kosuge M, Ebina T, Ishikawa T et al. Serum amyloid A is a better predictor of clinical outcomes than C-reactive protein in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Circ J 2007; 71: 18690.
  • 7
    Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 83643.
  • 8
    Hatanaka E, Monteagudo PT, Marrocos MS, Campa A. Interaction between serum amyloid A and leukocytes – a possible role in the progression of vascular complications in diabetes. Immunol Lett 2007; 108: 1606. Epub 2007 Jan 10.
  • 9
    Yang RZ, Lee MJ, Hu H et al. Acute-phase serum amyloid A: an inflammatory adipokine and potential link between obesity and its metabolic complications. PLoS Med 2006; 3: e287.
  • 10
    Kisilevsky R, Tam SP. Acute phase serum amyloid A, cholesterol metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med 2002; 21: 291305.
  • 11
    Lappalainen T, Kolehmainen M, Schwab U et al. Serum concentrations and expressions of serum amyloid A and leptin in adipose tissue are interrelated: the Genobin Study. Eur J Endocrinol 2008; 158: 33341.
  • 12
    Poitou C, Viguerie N, Cancello R et al. Serum amyloid A: production by human white adipocyte and regulation by obesity and nutrition. Diabetologia 2005; 48: 51928. Epub 2005 Feb 24.
  • 13
    Sjoholm K, Palming J, Olofsson LE et al. A microarray search for genes predominantly expressed in human omental adipocytes: adipose tissue as a major production site of serum amyloid A. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 22339. Epub 2004 Dec 28.
  • 14
    Gomez-Ambrosi J, Azcona C, Patino-Garcia A, Fruhbeck G. Serum Amyloid A concentration is increased in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr 2008; 153: 715. Epub 2008 Mar 7.
  • 15
    Poitou C, Coussieu C, Rouault C et al. Serum amyloid A: a marker of adiposity-induced low-grade inflammation but not of metabolic status. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14: 30918.
  • 16
    Akerblom HK, Viikari J, Uhari M et al. Atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and adolescents. I. General description of the cross-sectional study of 1980, and an account of the children’s and families’ state of health. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1985; 318: 4963.
  • 17
    Raitakari OT, Porkka KV, Viikari JS, Ronnemaa T, Akerblom HK. Clustering of risk factors for coronary heart disease in children and adolescents. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Acta Paediatr 1994; 83: 93540.
  • 18
    Juonala M, Viikari JS, Hutri-Kahonen N et al. The 21-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: risk factor levels, secular trends and east-west difference. J Intern Med 2004; 255: 45768.
  • 19
    Viikari LA, Huupponen RK, Viikari JS et al. Relationship between leptin and C-reactive protein in young Finnish adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007; 92: 47538. Epub 2007 Sep 18.
  • 20
    Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985; 28: 4129.
  • 21
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS et al. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993; 25: 7180.
  • 22
    Juonala M, Kahonen M, Laitinen T et al. Effect of age and sex on carotid intima-media thickness, elasticity and brachial endothelial function in healthy adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 1198206. Epub 2007 Dec 12.
  • 23
    Raitakari M, Mansikkaniemi K, Marniemi J, Viikari JS, Raitakari OT. Distribution and determinants of serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein in a population of young adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. J Intern Med 2005; 258: 42834.
  • 24
    Furlaneto CJ, Campa A. A novel function of serum amyloid A: a potent stimulus for the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-8 by human blood neutrophil. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 268: 4058.
  • 25
    Abbas A, Fadel PJ, Wang Z, Arbique D, Jialal I, Vongpatanasin W. Contrasting effects of oral versus transdermal estrogen on serum amyloid A (SAA) and high-density lipoprotein-SAA in postmenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24: e1647. Epub 2004 Jul 29.
  • 26
    Van Rooijen M, Hansson LO, Frostegard J, Silveira A, Hamsten A, Bremme K. Treatment with combined oral contraceptives induces a rise in serum C-reactive protein in the absence of a general inflammatory response. J Thromb Haemost 2006; 4: 7782.
  • 27
    Wakatsuki A, Okatani Y, Ikenoue N, Fukaya T. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on vascular inflammatory markers in postmenopausal women receiving estrogen. Circulation 2002; 105: 14369.
  • 28
    Sitruk-Ware R. Pharmacological profile of progestins. Maturitas 2004; 47: 27783.
  • 29
    Maier W, Altwegg LA, Corti R et al. Inflammatory markers at the site of ruptured plaque in acute myocardial infarction: locally increased interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A but decreased C-reactive protein. Circulation 2005; 111: 135561. Epub 2005 Mar 7.
  • 30
    Meek RL, Urieli-Shoval S, Benditt EP. Expression of apolipoprotein serum amyloid A mRNA in human atherosclerotic lesions and cultured vascular cells: implications for serum amyloid A function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 318690.
  • 31
    Yamada T, Kakihara T, Kamishima T, Fukuda T, Kawai T. Both acute phase and constitutive serum amyloid A are present in atherosclerotic lesions. Pathol Int 1996; 46: 797800.
  • 32
    Wilson PG, Thompson JC, Webb NR, De Beer FC, King VL, Tannock LR. Serum amyloid A, but not C-reactive protein, stimulates vascular proteoglycan synthesis in a pro-atherogenic manner. Am J Pathol 2008; 30: 30.
  • 33
    Song C, Shen Y, Yamen E et al. Serum amyloid A may potentiate prothrombotic and proinflammatory events in acute coronary syndromes. Atherosclerosis 2008; 15: 15.
  • 34
    Ogasawara K, Mashiba S, Wada Y et al. A serum amyloid A and LDL complex as a new prognostic marker in stable coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 2004; 174: 34956.
  • 35
    Wohlin M, Helmersson J, Sundstrom J et al. Both cyclooxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation are associated with carotid intima-media thickness. Cytokine 2007; 38: 1306. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
  • 36
    Schillinger M, Exner M, Mlekusch W et al. Inflammation and Carotid Artery – Risk for Atherosclerosis Study (ICARAS). Circulation 2005; 111: 22039. Epub 2005 Apr 25.