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- Identification of targets in particular autoimmune diseases for inverse vaccination
- Development of inverse vaccines to attenuate specific ongoing adaptive autoimmunity
- An oligonucleotide motif termed GpG to suppress Th1 T-cell responses
- Matching the inverse vaccine to targets detected on autoantibody arrays
- Inverse vaccines with increased GpG, high antigen expression and intracellular localization
- Human trials with an inverse vaccine in MS
- Human trials with inverse vaccines in type 1 diabetes
- Further human trials with inverse vaccines
- Conflict of interest statement
Abstract. Steinman L (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA). Inverse vaccination, the opposite of Jenner’s concept, for therapy of autoimmunity (foresight). J Intern Med 2010: 267: 441–451.
DNA-based vaccines to induce antigen-specific inhibition of immune responses in human autoimmune diseases represent the inverse of what Jenner intended when he invented vaccination. Jenner’s vaccine induced antigen-specific immunity to small pox. DNA vaccines for autoimmunity have been developed in preclinical settings, and now tested in human trials. The first two clinical trials, one in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, and the other in type 1 diabetes indicate that specific inhibition of antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses is attainable in humans. Further development of this approach is ongoing. This new version of immunization termed ‘inverse vaccination’ when applied to autoimmune diseases, may allow targeted reduction of unwanted antibody and T-cell responses to autoantigens, while leaving the remainder of the immune system intact. The method of specifically reducing a pathological adaptive autoimmune response is termed inverse vaccination.