Smoking and the outcome of infection
Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2010
© 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 269, Issue 3, pages 258–269, March 2011
How to Cite
Huttunen, R., Heikkinen, T. and Syrjänen, J. (2011), Smoking and the outcome of infection. Journal of Internal Medicine, 269: 258–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02332.x
- Issue online: 17 FEB 2011
- Version of Record online: 22 DEC 2010
- Accepted manuscript online: 26 NOV 2010 08:50AM EST
- environmental smoke exposure;
Abstract. Huttunen R, Heikkinen T, Syrjänen J. (Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere; Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku; Finland) Smoking and the Outcome of Infection (Review). J Intern Med 2010; 269: 258–269.
Smoking has substantial local and systemic adverse effects on the immune system, respiratory tract and skin and soft tissues. Smokers are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, periodontitis, surgical infections, tuberculosis, influenza and meningococcal disease. The results of several studies indicate that smokers with periodontitis or tuberculosis suffer more severe disease. Data on the impact of smoking on sepsis and pneumonia are controversial and limited, and systematic data regarding the outcome of the majority of infections in smokers are scarce. Abundant data indicate that children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) suffer from more severe infections. However, information regarding the effects of ETS on the outcome of infections in adults is limited. Various aspects of the relation between smoking and the outcome of bacterial infection (e.g. potential dose-dependent effects and the interactions between smoking and other environmental factors that may affect the course of infectious diseases) remain to be established.