SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). AIDS Epidemic Update 2009. Accessed on 20 September 2011 at http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/epidemiology/2009aidsepidemicupdate/
  • 2
    Newell ML, Coovadia H, Cortina-Borja M, Rollins N, Gaillard P, Dabis F. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. Lancet 2004; 364: 123643.
  • 3
    De Cock KM, Fowler MG, Mercier E et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-poor countries: translating research into policy and practice. JAMA 2000; 283: 117582.
  • 4
    World Health Organization/UNAIDS. HIV in pregnancy: a review. WHO, UNAIDS 1999; Occasional Paper.
  • 5
    Mayaux MJ, Teglas JP, Mandelbrot L et al. Acceptability and impact of zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission in France. J Pediatr 1997; 131: 85762.
  • 6
    European Collaborative Study. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 45865.
  • 7
    Bryson YJ, Luzuriaga K, Sullivan JL, Wara DW. Proposed definitions for in utero versus intrapartum transmission of HIV-1. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 12467.
  • 8
    Kalish LA, Pitt J, Lew J et al. Defining the time of fetal or perinatal acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on the basis of age at first positive culture. Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS). J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 7125.
  • 9
    Steketee RW, Abrams EJ, Thea DM et al. Early detection of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection using HIV RNA amplification and detection. New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 70711.
  • 10
    Henin Y, Mandelbrot L, Henrion R, Pradinaud R, Coulaud JP, Montagnier L. Virus excretion in the cervicovaginal secretions of pregnant and nonpregnant HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993; 6: 725.
  • 11
    Dunn DT, Simonds RJ, Bulterys M et al. Interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV-1: effect on viral detection rate in early infant samples. AIDS 2000; 14: 14218.
  • 12
    Moodley D, Moodley J, Coovadia H et al. A multicenter randomized controlled trial of nevirapine versus a combination of zidovudine and lamivudine to reduce intrapartum and early postpartum mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 72535.
  • 13
    Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D et al. Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2000; 283: 116774.
  • 14
    John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ekpini R et al. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35: 196202.
  • 15
    Backe E, Jimenez E, Unger M, Schafer A, Jauniaux E, Vogel M. Demonstration of HIV-1 infected cells in human placenta by in situ hybridisation and immunostaining. J Clin Pathol 1992; 45: 8714.
  • 16
    Jovaisas E, Koch MA, Schafer A. LAV/HTLVIII in 20-week fetus. Lancet 1985; 8464: 1129.
  • 17
    Sprecher S, Soumenkoff G, Puissant F, Degueldre M. Vertical transmission of HIV in 15-week fetus. Lancet 1986; 2: 2889.
  • 18
    Lewis SH, Reynolds-Kohler C, Fox HE, Nelson JA. HIV-1 in trophoblastic and villous Hofbauer cells, and hematologic precursors in eight week fetuses. Lancet 1990; 335: 565.
  • 19
    Brossard Y, Aubin J-T, Mandelbrot L et al. Frequency of early in utero HIV-1 infection: a blind DNA polymerase chain reaction study on 100 fetal thymuses. AIDS 1995; 9: 35966.
  • 20
    Ehrnst A, Lindgren S, Dictor M et al. HIV in pregnant women and their offspring: evidence for late transmission. Lancet 1991; 338: 2037.
  • 21
    Bulterys M, Chao A, Dushimimana A, Kageruka M, Nawrocki P, Saah AJ. HIV-exposed twins. Lancet 1992; 339: 628.
  • 22
    Goedert JJ, Duliege AM, Amos CI, Felton S, Biggar RJ. High risk of HIV-1 infection for first-born twins. The International Registry of HIV-exposed Twins. Lancet 1991; 338: 14715.
  • 23
    Biggar RJ, Cassol S, Kumwenda N et al. The risk of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in twin pairs born to infected mothers in Africa. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 8505.
  • 24
    European Collaborative Study. Caesarean section and risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1 infection. Lancet 1994; 343: 14647.
  • 25
    Kind C, Rudin C, Siegrist CA et al. Prevention of vertical HIV transmission: additive protective effect of elective Cesarean section and zidovudine prophylaxis. Swiss Neonatal HIV Study Group. AIDS 1998; 12: 20510.
  • 26
    Landesman SH, Kalish LA, Burns DN et al. Obstetrical factors and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to child. The Women and Infants Transmission Study. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 161723.
  • 27
    Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Kuhn L, Spooner E, Tsai WY, Coovadia HM. Method of feeding and transmission of HIV-1 from mothers to children by 15 months of age: prospective cohort study from Durban, South Africa. Aids 2001; 15: 37987.
  • 28
    Dunn DT, Newell ML, Ades AE, Peckham CS. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breastfeeding. Lancet 1992; 340: 5858.
  • 29
    Iliff PJ, Piwoz EG, Tavengwa NV et al. Early exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission and increases HIV-free survival. AIDS 2005; 19: 699708.
  • 30
    Leroy V, Karon JM, Alioum A et al. Twenty-four month efficacy of a maternal short-course zidovudine regimen to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in West Africa. AIDS 2002; 16: 63141.
  • 31
    Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia HM. Influence of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa: a prospective cohort study. South African Vitamin A Study Group. Lancet 1999; 354: 4716.
  • 32
    Nduati R, Mbori-Ngacha D, John G, Richardson B, Kreiss J. Breastfeeding in women with HIV. JAMA 2000; 284: 9567.
  • 33
    Rollins NC, Filteau SM, Coutsoudis A, Tomkins AM. Feeding mode, intestinal permeability, and neopterin excretion: a longitudinal study in infants of HIV-infected South African women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001; 28: 1329.
  • 34
    Catassi C, Bonucci A, Coppa GV, Carlucci A, Giorgi PL. Intestinal permeability changes during the first month: effect of natural versus artificial feeding. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995; 21: 3836.
  • 35
    Goto K, Chew F, Torun B, Peerson JM, Brown KH. Epidemiology of altered intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol in Guatemalan infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1999; 28: 28290.
  • 36
    Fazely F, Sharma PL, Fratazzi C et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection via amniotic fluid: a model to study fetal immunopathogenesis and prophylaxis. J. AIDS 1993; 6: 10714.
  • 37
    Maiques V, Garcia-Tejedor A, Perales A, Cordoba J, Esteban RJ. HIV detection in amniotic fluid samples. Amniocentesis can be performed in HIV pregnant women? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003; 108: 13741.
  • 38
    Mohlala BK, Tucker TJ, Besser MJ et al. Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 48891.
  • 39
    Lagaye S, Derrien M, Menu E et al. Cell-to-cell contact results in a selective translocation of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies across a trophoblastic barrier by both transcytosis and infection. J Virol 2001; 75: 478091.
  • 40
    Arias RA, Munoz LD, Munoz-Fernandez MA. Transmission of HIV-1 infection between trophoblast placental cells and T-cells take place via an LFA-1-mediated cell to cell contact. Virology 2003; 307: 26677.
  • 41
    Geijtenbeek TB, van Vliet SJ, van Duijnhoven GC, Figdor CG, van Kooyk Y. DC-SIGN, a dentritic cell-specific HIV-1 receptor present in placenta that infects T cells in trans-a review. Placenta 2001; 22(Suppl A): S1923.
  • 42
    David FJ, Autran B, Tran HC et al. Human trophoblast cells express CD4 and are permissive for productive infection with HIV-1. Clin Exp Immunol 1992; 88: 106.
  • 43
    David FJ, Tran HC, Serpente N et al. HIV infection of choriocarcinoma cell lines derived from human placenta: the role of membrane CD4 and Fc-Rs into HIV entry. Virology 1995; 208: 7848.
  • 44
    Mano H, Chermann J-C. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in primary cultured placental cells. Res Virol 1991; 142: 95104.
  • 45
    Mognetti B, Moussa M, Croitoru J et al. HIV-1 co-receptor expression on trophoblastic cells from early placentas and permissivity to infection by several HIV-1 primary isolates. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 119: 48692.
  • 46
    Amirhessami-Aghili N, Spector SA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human placenta: potential route for fetal infection. J Virol 1991; 65: 22316.
  • 47
    Chandwani S, Greco MA, Mittal K, Antoine C, Krasinski K, Borkowsky W. Pathology and human immunodeficiency virus expression in placentas of seropositive women. J Infect Dis 1991; 163: 11348.
  • 48
    Martin AW, Brady K, Smith SI et al. Immunohistochemical localization of human immunodeficiency virus p24 antigen in placental tissue. Hum Pathol 1992; 23: 4114.
  • 49
    Menu E, Mbopi-Keou FX, Lagaye S et al. Selection of maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in human placenta. European Network for In Utero Transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 1999; 179: 4451.
  • 50
    Tscherning-Casper C, Papadogiannakis N, Anvret M et al. The trophoblastic epithelial barrier is not infected in full-term placentae of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive mothers undergoing antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 1999; 73: 96738.
  • 51
    Chappuy H, Treluyer JM, Jullien V et al. Maternal-fetal transfer and amniotic fluid accumulation of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004; 48: 43326.
  • 52
    Chappuy H, Treluyer JM, Rey E et al. Maternal-fetal transfer and amniotic fluid accumulation of protease inhibitors in pregnant women who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191: 55862.
  • 53
    Pacifici G. Transfer of antivirals across the human placenta. Early Hum Dev 2005; 81: 64754.
  • 54
    Bhoopat L, Khunamornpong S, Lerdsrimongkol P et al. Effectiveness of short-term and long-term Zidovudine prophylaxis on detection of HIV-1 subtype E in human placenta and vertical transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 40: 54550.
  • 55
    Dolcini G, Derrien M, Chaouat G, Barre-Sinoussi F, Menu E. Cell-free HIV type 1 infection is restricted in the human trophoblast choriocarcinoma BeWo cell line, even with expression of CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2003; 19: 85764.
  • 56
    Derrien M, Faye A, Dolcini G, Chaouat G, Barre-Sinoussi F, Menu E. Impact of the placental cytokine-chemokine balance on regulation of cell-cell contact-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 translocation across a trophoblastic barrier in vitro. J Virol 2005; 79: 1230410.
  • 57
    Winchester R, Pitt J, Charurat M et al. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: strong association with certain maternal HLA-B alleles independent of viral load implicates innate immune mechanisms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 36: 65970.
  • 58
    Frankel SS, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P et al. Active replication of HIV-1 at the lymphoepithelial surface of the tonsil. Am J Pathol 1997; 151: 8996.
  • 59
    Frankel SS, Wenig BM, Burke AP et al. Replication of HIV-1 in dendritic cell-derived syncytia at the mucosal surface of the adenoid. Science 1996; 272: 1157.
  • 60
    Gilbart VL, Evans BG, Dougan S. HIV transmission among men who have sex with men through oral sex. Sex Transm Infect 2004; 80: 324.
  • 61
    Page-Shafer K, Shiboski CH, Osmond DH et al. Risk of HIV infection attributable to oral sex among men who have sex with men and in the population of men who have sex with men. AIDS 2002; 16: 23502.
  • 62
    Maher D, Wu X, Schacker T, Larson M, Southern P. A model system of oral HIV exposure, using human palatine tonsil, reveals extensive binding of HIV infectivity, with limited progression to primary infection. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 198997.
  • 63
    Stahl-Hennig C, Steinman RM, Tenner-Racz K et al. Rapid infection of oral mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue with simian immunodeficiency virus. Science 1999; 285: 12615.
  • 64
    Moutsopoulos NM, Vazquez N, Greenwell-Wild T et al. Regulation of the tonsil cytokine milieu favors HIV susceptibility. J Leukoc Biol 2006; 80: 114555.
  • 65
    Nielsen K, Boyer P, Dillon M et al. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and HIV-1-specific antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions of infected mothers and in the gastric aspirates of their infants. J Infect Dis 1996; 173: 10014.
  • 66
    Eglinton BA, Roberton DM, Cummins AG. Phenotype of T cells, their soluble receptor levels, and cytokine profile of human breast milk. Immunol Cell Biol 1994; 72: 30613.
  • 67
    Rousseau CM, Nduati RW, Richardson BA et al. Association of levels of HIV-1-infected breast milk cells and risk of mother-to-child transmission. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 18808.
  • 68
    Li Q, Duan L, Estes JD et al. Peak SIV replication in resting memory CD4+ T cells depletes gut lamina propria CD4+ T cells. Nature 2005; 434: 114852.
  • 69
    Mattapallil JJ, Douek DC, Hill B, Nishimura Y, Martin M, Roederer M. Massive infection and loss of memory CD4+ T cells in multiple tissues during acute SIV infection. Nature 2005; 434: 10937.
  • 70
    Bomsel M, Heyman M, Hocini H et al. Intracellular neutralization of HIV transcytosis across tight epithelial barriers by anti-HIV envelope protein dIgA or IgM. Immunity 1998; 9: 27787.
  • 71
    Fotopoulos G, Harari A, Michetti P, Trono D, Pantaleo G, Kraehenbuhl JP. Transepithelial transport of HIV-1 by M cells is receptor-mediated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99: 94104.
  • 72
    Schneider T, Ullrich R, Zeitz M. The immunologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract. Semin Gastrointest Dis 1996; 7: 1929.
  • 73
    Rescigno M, Urbano M, Valzasina B et al. Dendritic cells express tight junction proteins and penetrate gut epithelial monolayers to sample bacteria. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 3617.
  • 74
    Niess J. Role of gut-resident dendritic cells in inflammatory bowel disease. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2009; 5: 45161.
  • 75
    Cavarelli M, Foglieni C, Rescigno M, Scarlatti G. Dendritic cells sample HIV-1 through an intestinal epithelial cell monolayer. Fifth Dominique Dormont International Conference. Mother-to-child transmitted viral diseases: from transmission to children care. Paris, France. 26–28 March 2009.
  • 76
    Dickover RE, Garratty EM, Herman SA et al. Identification of levels of maternal HIV-1 RNA associated with risk of perinatal transmission. Effect of maternal zidovudine treatment on viral load. JAMA 1996; 275: 599605.
  • 77
    Garcia PM, Kalish LA, Pitt J et al. Maternal levels of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and the risk of perinatal transmission. Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 394402.
  • 78
    Sperling RS, Shapiro DE, Coombs RW et al. Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076 Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 16219.
  • 79
    Mofenson LM, Lambert JS, Stiehm ER et al. Risk factors for perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in women treated with zidovudine. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 185 Team. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 38593.
  • 80
    Richardson BA, John-Stewart GC, Hughes JP et al. Breast-milk infectivity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected mothers. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 73640.
  • 81
    Semba RD, Kumwenda N, Hoover DR et al. Human immunodeficiency virus load in breast milk, mastitis, and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 938.
  • 82
    Willumsen JF, Filteau SM, Coutsoudis A et al. Breastmilk RNA viral load in HIV-infected South African women: effects of subclinical mastitis and infant feeding. AIDS 2003; 17: 40714.
  • 83
    John GC, Nduati RW, Mbori-Ngacha DA et al. Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital HIV-1 DNA shedding, and breast infections. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 20612.
  • 84
    Embree JE, Njenga S, Datta P et al. Risk factors for postnatal mother-child transmission of HIV-1. AIDS 2000; 14: 253541.
  • 85
    Cao Y, Krogstad P, Korber BT et al. Maternal HIV-1 viral load and vertical transmission of infection: the Ariel Project for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to infant. Nature Med 1997; 3: 54952.
  • 86
    Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Ioannidis JP. Maternal cell-free viremia in the natural history of perinatal HIV-1 transmission: a meta-analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1998; 18: 12635.
  • 87
    Cavarelli M, Scarlatti G. HIV-1 co-receptor usage: influence on mother-to-child transmission and pediatric infection. J Transl Med 2010; 9(Suppl 1): S10.
  • 88
    Campodonico M, Janssens W, Heyndrickx L et al. HIV type 1 subtypes in Argentina and genetic heterogeneity of the V3 region. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1996; 12: 7981.
  • 89
    Contag CH, Ehrnst A, Duda J et al. Mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involving five envelope sequence subtypes. J Virol 1997; 71: 1292300.
  • 90
    Odaibo GN, Olaleye DO, Heyndrickx L, Vereecken K, Houwer K, Jassens W. Mother-to-child transmission of different HIV-1 subtypes among ARV Naive infected pregnant women in Nigeria. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2006; 48: 7780.
  • 91
    Cavarelli M, Karlsson I, Ripamonti C, Plebani A, Fenyo EM, Scarlatti G. Flexible use of CCR5 in the absence of CXCR4 use explains the immune deficiency in HIV-1 infected children. AIDS 2010; 24: 252733.
  • 92
    Cavarelli M, Karlsson I, Zanchetta M et al. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e3292.
  • 93
    Ometto L, Zanchetta M, Mainardi M et al. Co-receptor usage of HIV-1 primary isolates, viral burden, and CCR5 genotype in mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. AIDS 2000; 14: 17219.
  • 94
    John GC, Rousseau C, Dong T et al. Maternal SDF1 3′A polymorphism is associated with increased perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Virol 2000; 74: 57369.
  • 95
    Romiti ML, Colognesi C, Cancrini C et al. Prognostic value of a CCR5 defective allele in pediatric HIV-1 infection. Mol Med 2000; 6: 2836.
  • 96
    Tresoldi E, Romiti ML, Boniotto M et al. Prognostic value of the stromal cell-derived factor 1 3′A mutation in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 696700.
  • 97
    Amoroso A, Berrino M, Boniotto M et al. Polymorphism at codon 54 of mannose-binding protein gene influences AIDS progression but not HIV infection in exposed children. AIDS 1999; 13: 8634.
  • 98
    Boniotti M, Crovella S, Pirulli D et al. Polymorphism in the MBL promoter correlated with risk of HIV-1 vertical transmission and AIDS progression. Gene Immun 2000; 1: 3468.
  • 99
    Braida L, Boniotto M, Pontillo A, Tovo PA, Amoroso A, Crovella S. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human beta-defensin 1 gene is associated with HIV-1 infection in Italian children. AIDS 2004; 18: 1598600.
  • 100
    Joubert BR, Franceschini N, Mwapasa V, North KE, Meshnick SR. Regulation of CCR5 expression in human placenta: insights from a study of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Malawi. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e9212.
  • 101
    Behbahani H, Popek E, Garcia P et al. Up-regulation of CCR5 expression in the placenta is associated with human immunodeficiency virus-1 vertical transmission. Am J Pathol 2000; 157: 18118.
  • 102
    Mwanyumba F, Gaillard P, Inion I et al. Placental inflammation and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 29: 2629.
  • 103
    Taha TE, Gray RH. Genital tract infections and perinatal transmission of HIV. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2000; 918: 8498.
  • 104
    Kfutwah A, Mary J, Lemen B et al. Plasmodium falciparum infection significantly impairs placental cytokine profile in HIV infected Cameroonian women. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e8114.
  • 105
    Mwapasa V, Rogerson SJ, Molyneux ME et al. The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on peripheral and placental HIV-1 RNA concentrations in pregnant Malawian women. AIDS 2004; 18: 10519.
  • 106
    Ayisi JG, van Eijk AM, Newman RD et al. Maternal malaria and perinatal HIV transmission, western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis 2004; 10: 64352.
  • 107
    Inion I, Mwanyumba F, Gaillard P et al. Placental malaria and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 16758.
  • 108
    Kapiga SH, Bang H, Spiegelman D et al. Correlates of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-1-seropositive women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 30: 31623.
  • 109
    Devash Y, Calvelli TA, Wood DG, Reagan KJ, Rubinstein A. Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus is correlated with the absence of high affinity/avidity maternal antibodies to the gp120 pricipal neutralizing domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 34459.
  • 110
    Guevara H, Casseb J, Zijenah LS et al. Maternal HIV-1 antibody and vertical transmission in subtype C virus infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 29: 43540.
  • 111
    Markham RB, Coberly J, Ruff AJ et al. Maternal IgG1 and IgA antibody to V3 loop consensus sequence and maternal-infant HIV-1 transmission. Lancet 1994; 343: 3901.
  • 112
    Rossi P, Moschese V, Broliden PA et al. Presence of maternal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 epitopes correlates with the uninfected status of children born to seropositive mothers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989; 86: 80558.
  • 113
    Ugen KE, Srikantan V, Goedert JJ, Nelson Jr RP, Williams WV, Weiner DB. Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: seroreactivity by maternal antibodies to the carboxy region of the gp41 envelope glycoprotein. J Infect Dis 1997; 175: 639.
  • 114
    Louisirirotchanakul S, Beddows S, Cheingsong R et al. Role of maternal humoral immunity in vertical transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999; 21: 25965.
  • 115
    Robertson CA, Mok JY, Froebel KS et al. Maternal antibodies to gp120 V3 sequence do not correlate with protection against vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 1992; 166: 7049.
  • 116
    Baba TW, Liska V, Hofmann-Lehmann R et al. Human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies of the IgG1 subtype protect against mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. Nat Med 2000; 6: 2006.
  • 117
    Colognesi C, Halapi E, Jansson M et al. The role of virologic and immunologic factors in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 38: 197200.
  • 118
    Hutto C, Zhou Y, He J et al. Longitudinal studies of viral sequence, viral phenotype, and immunologic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in perinatally infected twins with discordant disease courses. J Virol 1996; 70: 358998.
  • 119
    Jansson M, Orlandi P, Scarlatti G et al. Role of immunity in maternal-infant HIV-1 transmission. Acta Paediatr Suppl 1997; 421: 3945.
  • 120
    Lathey JL, Tsou J, Brinker K, Hsia K, Meyer III WA, Spector SA. Lack of autologous neutralizing antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and macrophage tropism are associated with mother-to-infant transmission. J Infect Dis 1999; 180: 34450.
  • 121
    Scarlatti G, Albert J, Rossi P et al. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: correlation with neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates. J Infect Dis 1993; 168: 20710.
  • 122
    Hengel RL, Kennedy MS, Steketee RW et al. Neutralizing antibody and perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. New York City Perinatal HIV Transmission Collaborative Study Group. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998; 14: 47581.
  • 123
    Husson RN, Lan Y, Kojima E, Venzon D, Mitsuya H, McIntosh K. Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: autologous neutralizing antibody, virus load, and virus phenotype. J Pediatr 1995; 126: 86571.
  • 124
    Kittinunvorakoon C, Morris MK, Neeyapun K, Jetsawang B, Buehring GC, Hanson CV. Mother to child transmission of HIV-1 in a Thai population: role of virus characteristics and maternal humoral immune response. J Med Virol 2009; 81: 76878.
  • 125
    Barin F, Jourdain G, Brunet S et al. Revisiting the role of neutralizing antibodies in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 2006; 193: 150411.
  • 126
    Samleerat T, Thenin S, Jourdain G et al. Maternal neutralizing antibodies against a CRF01_AE primary isolate are associated with a low rate of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. Virology 2009; 387: 38894.
  • 127
    Lynch JB, Nduati R, Blish CA et al. The breadth and potency of passively acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific neutralizing antibodies does not correlate with risk of infant infection. J Virol 2011; 85: 525261.
  • 128
    Wu X, Parast AB, Richardson BA et al. Neutralization escape variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are transmitted from mother to infant. J Virol 2006; 80: 83544.
  • 129
    Dickover R, Garratty E, Yusim K, Miller C, Korber B, Bryson Y. Role of maternal autologous neutralizing antibody in selective perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape variants. J Virol 2006; 80: 652533.
  • 130
    Van de Perre P, Simonon A, Hitimana DG et al. Infective and anti-infective properties of breastmilk from HIV-1-infected women [see comments]. Lancet 1993; 341: 9148.
  • 131
    Becquart P, Hocini H, Levy M, Sepou A, Kazatchkine MD, Belec L. Secretory anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in colostrum and breast milk are not a major determinant of the protection of early postnatal transmission of HIV. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 5329.
  • 132
    Duprat C, Mohammed Z, Datta P et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IgA antibody in breast milk and serum. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1994; 13: 6038.
  • 133
    Kuhn L, Trabattoni D, Kankasa C et al. HIV-specific secretory IgA in breast milk of HIV-positive mothers is not associated with protection against HIV transmission among breast-fed infants. J Pediatr 2006; 149: 6116.
  • 134
    Ahmad N. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and infection in neonatal target cells. Life Sci 2011; 88: 9806.
  • 135
    Goulder PJ, Brander C, Tang Y et al. Evolution and transmission of stable CTL escape mutations in HIV infection. Nature 2001; 412: 3348.
  • 136
    Wilson CC, Brown RC, Korber BT et al. Frequent detection of escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 transmission: the ariel project for the prevention of transmission of HIV from mother to infant. J Virol 1999; 73: 397585.
  • 137
    Pillay T, Zhang HT, Drijfhout JW et al. Unique acquisition of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutants in infant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 2005; 79: 121005.
  • 138
    Feeney ME, Tang Y, Pfafferott K et al. HIV-1 viral escape in infancy followed by emergence of a variant-specific CTL response. J Immunol 2005; 174: 752430.
  • 139
    Leslie AJ, Pfafferott KJ, Chetty P et al. HIV evolution: CTL escape mutation and reversion after transmission. Nat Med 2004; 10: 2829.
  • 140
    Mackelprang RD, John-Stewart G, Carrington M et al. Maternal HLA homozygosity and mother-child HLA concordance increase the risk of vertical transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis 2008; 197: 115661.
  • 141
    Polycarpou A, Ntais C, Korber BT et al. Association between maternal and infant class I and II HLA alleles and of their concordance with the risk of perinatal HIV type 1 transmission. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2002; 18: 7416.
  • 142
    MacDonald KS, Embree JE, Nagelkerke NJ et al. The HLA A2/6802 supertype is associated with reduced risk of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 5036.
  • 143
    Centers for Disease Control. Zidovudine for the Prevention of HIV Transmission from Mother to Infant. Morbid Mortal Wkly Rep 1994; 43: 2857.
  • 144
    Dabis F, Msellati P, Meda N et al. 6-month efficacy, tolerance, and acceptability of a short regimen of oral zidovudine to reduce vertical transmission of HIV in breastfed children in Cote d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial. DITRAME Study Group. DIminution de la Transmission Mere-Enfant. Lancet 1999; 353: 78692.
  • 145
    Lallemant M, Jourdain G, Le Coeur S et al. A trial of shortened zidovudine regimens to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Perinatal HIV Prevention Trial (Thailand) Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 98291.
  • 146
    Wiktor SZ, Ekpini E, Karon JM et al. Short-course oral zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 7815.
  • 147
    Mofenson LM, McIntyre JA. Advances and research directions in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. Lancet 2000; 355: 223744.
  • 148
    Chaisilwattana P, Chokephaibulkit K, Chalermchockcharoenkit A et al. Short-course therapy with zidovudine plus lamivudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Thailand. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 140513.
  • 149
    Mandelbrot L, Landreau-Mascaro A, Rekacewicz C et al. Lamivudine-zidovudine combination for prevention of maternal-infant transmission of HIV-1. JAMA 2001; 285: 208393.
  • 150
    The Petra Study Team. Efficacy of three short-course regimens of zidovudine and lamivudine in preventing early and late transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda (Petra study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 359: 117886.
  • 151
    Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T et al. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 354: 795802.
  • 152
    Leroy V, Sakarovitch C, Cortina-Borja M et al. Is there a difference in the efficacy of peripartum antiretroviral regimens in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Africa? AIDS 2005; 19: 186575.
  • 153
    Dabis F, Bequet L, Ekouevi DK et al. Field efficacy of zidovudine, lamivudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent peripartum HIV transmission. AIDS 2005; 19: 30918.
  • 154
    Lallemant M, Jourdain G, Le Coeur S et al. Single-dose perinatal nevirapine plus standard zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 21728.
  • 155
    Taha TE, Kumwenda NI, Gibbons A et al. Short postexposure prophylaxis in newborn babies to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: NVAZ randomised clinical trial. Lancet 2003; 362: 11717.
  • 156
    Leroy V, Karon JM, Alioum A et al. Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 after a maternal short-course zidovudine peripartum regimen in West Africa. AIDS 2003; 17: 1493501.
  • 157
    Jamieson DJ, Sibailly TS, Sadek R et al. HIV-1 viral load and other risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in a breast-feeding population in Cote d’Ivoire. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 34: 4306.
  • 158
    Coutsoudis A, Dabis F, Fawzi W et al. Late postnatal transmission of HIV-1 in breast-fed children: an individual patient data meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 215466.
  • 159
    Miotti PG, Taha TE, Kumwenda NI et al. HIV transmission through breastfeeding: a study in Malawi. JAMA 1999; 282: 7449.
  • 160
    Thior I, Lockman S, Smeaton LM et al. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study. JAMA 2006; 296: 794805.
  • 161
    Coovadia HM, Coutsoudis A. HIV, infant feeding, and survival: old wine in new bottles, but brimming with promise. AIDS 2007; 21: 183740.
  • 162
    Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G et al. Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 357: 16515.
  • 163
    Rollins N, Meda N, Becquet R et al. Preventing postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding: modifying infant feeding practices. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35: 18895.
  • 164
    Israel-Ballard K, Chantry C, Dewey K et al. Viral, nutritional, and bacterial safety of flash-heated and pretoria-pasteurized breast milk to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor countries: a pilot study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 40: 17581.
  • 165
    Ekpini ER, Wiktor SZ, Satten GA et al. Late postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire. Lancet 1997; 349: 10549.
  • 166
    Fawzi W, Msamanga G, Spiegelman D et al. Transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding among women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2002; 31: 3318.
  • 167
    Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM, Sinkala M et al. Effects of early, abrupt weaning on HIV-free survival of children in Zambia. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 13041.
  • 168
    Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM, Sinkala M et al. Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e6059.
  • 169
    Jackson JB, Musoke P, Fleming T et al. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: 18-month follow-up of the HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 2003; 362: 85968.
  • 170
    Bedri A, Gudetta B, Isehak A et al. Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2008; 372: 30013.
  • 171
    Giuliano M, Galluzzo CM, Germinario EA et al. Selection of resistance mutations in children receiving prophylaxis with lamivudine or nevirapine for the prevention of postnatal transmission of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006; 42: 1313.
  • 172
    Kilewo C, Karlsson K, Ngarina M et al. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding by treating mothers with triple antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the Mitra Plus study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2009; 52: 40616.
  • 173
    Peltier CA, Ndayisaba GF, Lepage P et al. Breastfeeding with maternal antiretroviral therapy or formula feeding to prevent HIV postnatal mother-to-child transmission in Rwanda. AIDS 2009; 23: 241523.
  • 174
    Shapiro RL, Smeaton L, Lockman S et al. Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana. J Infect Dis 2009; 199: 4148.
  • 175
    Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, Jamieson DJ et al. Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 227181.
  • 176
    Johnson JA, Li JF, Morris L et al. Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 after intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine is substantially underestimated. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 1623.
  • 177
    Loubser S, Balfe P, Sherman G, Hammer S, Kuhn L, Morris L. Decay of K103N mutants in cellular DNA and plasma RNA after single-dose nevirapine to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission. AIDS 2006; 20: 9951002.
  • 178
    Palmer S, Kearney M, Maldarelli F et al. Multiple, linked human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients are missed by standard genotype analysis. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43: 40613.
  • 179
    Eshleman SH, Hoover DR, Chen S et al. Nevirapine (NVP) resistance in women with HIV-1 subtype C, compared with subtypes A and D, after the administration of single-dose NVP. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 306.
  • 180
    Eshleman SH, Guay LA, Mwatha A et al. Characterization of nevirapine resistance mutations in women with subtype A vs. D HIV-1 6–8 weeks after single-dose nevirapine (HIVNET 012). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004; 35: 12630.
  • 181
    Eshleman SH, Guay LA, Wang J et al. Distinct patterns of emergence and fading of K103N and Y181C in women with subtype A vs. D after single-dose nevirapine: HIVNET 012. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 40: 249.
  • 182
    Eshleman SH, Mracna M, Guay LA et al. Selection and fading of resistance mutations in women and infants receiving nevirapine to prevent HIV-1 vertical transmission (HIVNET 012). AIDS 2001; 15: 19517.
  • 183
    Flys T, Nissley DV, Claasen CW et al. Sensitive drug-resistance assays reveal long-term persistence of HIV-1 variants with the K103N nevirapine (NVP) resistance mutation in some women and infants after the administration of single-dose NVP: HIVNET 012. J Infect Dis 2005; 192: 249.
  • 184
    Martinson NA, Morris L, Johnson J et al. Women exposed to single-dose nevirapine in successive pregnancies: effectiveness and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. AIDS 2009; 23: 80916.
  • 185
    Jourdain G, Ngo-Giang-Huong N, Le Coeur S et al. Intrapartum exposure to nevirapine and subsequent maternal responses to nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 22940.
  • 186
    Stringer JS, McConnell MS, Kiarie J et al. Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study. PLoS Med 2010; 7: e1000233.
  • 187
    Cressey TR, Jourdain G, Lallemant MJ et al. Persistence of nevirapine exposure during the postpartum period after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine in addition to zidovudine prophylaxis for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005; 38: 2838.
  • 188
    Chokephaibulkit K, Chaisilwattana P, Vanprapar N, Phongsamart W, Sutthent R. Lack of resistant mutation development after receiving short-course zidovudine plus lamivudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission. AIDS 2005; 19: 12313.
  • 189
    Farr SL, Nelson JA, Ng’ombe TJ et al. Addition of 7 days of zidovudine plus lamivudine to peripartum single-dose nevirapine effectively reduces nevirapine resistance postpartum in HIV-infected mothers in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2010; 54: 51523.
  • 190
    McIntyre JA, Hopley M, Moodley D et al. Efficacy of short-course AZT plus 3TC to reduce nevirapine resistance in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: a randomized clinical trial. PLoS Med 2009; 6: e1000172.
  • 191
    World Health Organization (WHO). Antiretroviral drugs and the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in resource-limited settings. Recommendations for a Publlic Health approach (2005 Revision) Expert consultation, Geneva, 28–29 June 2005. http://www.who.int/3by5/arv_pmtct/en/. 2005.
  • 192
    World Health Organization (WHO). PMTCT Strategic Vision 2010–2015. Preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV to reach the UNGASS and Millennium Development Goals. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/mtct/strategic_vision.pdf . 2010.
  • 193
    World Health Organization (WHO). Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants: towards universal access- 2010 version. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/mtct/antiretroviral2010/en/ . 2010.
  • 194
    The Kesho Bora Study Group. Triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Kesho Bora study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2011; 11: 17180.
  • 195
    World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). AIDS Epidemic Update 2005. http://www.unaids.org . 2005.
  • 196
    Thorne C, Newell ML. The safety of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2005; 4: 32335.
  • 197
    World Health Organization (WHO). Report of the WHO Technical Reference Group. Paediatric HIV/ART Care Guidelines Group Meeting; 10–11 April 2008; WHO Headquarters, Geneva. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/paediatric/WHO_Paediatric_ART_guideline_rev_mreport_2008.pdf . 2008.
  • 198
    UNICEF. Children and AIDS. http://www.unicef.org/aids/index_46650.html . 2008.