Presented in part at the Annual Congress, European Society of Cardiology, Paris, 2011.
The fibrosis marker galectin-3 and outcome in the general population
Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 272, Issue 1, pages 55–64, July 2012
How to Cite
de Boer, R. A., van Veldhuisen, D. J., Gansevoort, R. T., Muller Kobold, A. C., van Gilst, W. H., Hillege, H. L., Bakker, S. J. L. and van der Harst, P. (2012), The fibrosis marker galectin-3 and outcome in the general population. Journal of Internal Medicine, 272: 55–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02476.x
- Issue published online: 21 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 25 OCT 2011 09:29AM EST
- cardiovascular system;
- general population;
Abstract. de Boer RA, van Veldhuisen DJ, Gansevoort RT, Muller Kobold AC, van Gilst WH, Hillege HL, Bakker SJL, van der Harst P (University of Groningen). The fibrosis marker galectin-3 and outcome in the general population. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 55–64.
Objective. Galectin-3 is involved in fibrosis and inflammation and plays a role in heart failure, renal disease, obesity and cancer. We aimed to establish the relationship between galectin-3 and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and mortality in the general population.
Design and subjects. This study included 7968 subjects from the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, with a median follow-up of approximately 10 years. Plasma galectin-3 was measured in baseline samples.
Main outcome measures. We investigated the relationships between galectin-3 levels, demographic characteristics and risk factors of CV disease. We determined the prognostic value for all-cause, CV and cancer mortality.
Results. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 13 years. Mean blood pressure was 129/74 mmHg, mean cholesterol was 5.7 ± 1.1 mmol L−1 and median galectin-3 was 10.9 ng mL−1 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.0–13.1]. Galectin-3 levels correlated with a wide range of risk factors of CV disease, including blood pressure, serum lipids, body mass index, renal function and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (P < 0.0001). We observed a strong association between galectin-3 and age. Furthermore, we found a gender interaction, with female subjects (n = 4001) having higher median galectin-3 levels (11.0 ng mL−1, IQR 9.1–13.4 vs. men (n = 3967) 10.7 ng mL−1, IQR 8.9–12.8; P < 0.0001), and galectin-3 levels in women more strongly correlated with risk factors of CV disease. After correction for the classical CV risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes), galectin-3 levels independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per SD galectin-3 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.19; P = 0.036), but not CV and cancer mortality separately.
Conclusions. Galectin-3 is associated with age and risk factors of CV disease, with a strong gender interaction for these correlations. Galectin-3 predicts all-cause mortality in the general population.