• 1
    Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Manzanares S et al. Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 598606.
  • 2
    Block ML, Calderon-Garciduenas L. Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS disease. Trends Neurosci 2009; 32: 50616.
  • 3
    Brunekreef B. Traffic and the heart. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 26212.
  • 4
    Van Hee VC, Kaufman JD, Budinger GRS, Mutlu GM. Update in environmental and occupational medicine 2009. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 181: 117480.
  • 5
    Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Dragano N et al. Residential traffic exposure and coronary heart disease: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Biomarkers 2009; 14(Suppl 1): 748.
  • 6
    Diez Roux AV, Auchincloss AH, Franklin TG et al. Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter and prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 66775.
  • 7
    Allen RW, Criqui MH, Diez Roux AV et al. Fine particulate matter, proximity to traffic and aortic atherosclerosis. Epidemiology 2009; 20: 25464.
  • 8
    Takasu J, Katz R, Nasir K et al. Relationships of thoracic aortic wall calcification to cardiovascular risk factors: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am Heart J 2008; 155: 76571.
  • 9
    Zhou HL, Jiang CQ, Lam TH et al. Impact of calcification of aortic arch by lifestyle-related, physiologic and biochemical factors. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2009; 30: 7769.
  • 10
    Xu L, Jiang CQ, Lam TH, Thomas GN, Zhang WS, Cheng KK. Passive smoking and aortic arch calcification in older Chinese never smokers: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Int J Cardiol 2011; 148: 18993.
  • 11
    Peinemann F, Moebus S, Dragano N et al. Second-hand smoke exposure and coronary artery calcification among non-smoking participants of a population-based cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 155661.
  • 12
    Wang L, Jerosch-Herold M, Jacobs Jr DR et al. Coronary artery calcification and myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic adults: the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 48: 101826.
  • 13
    Henein M, Nicoll R, Schmermund A. Extensive coronary calcification: a potential cause for angina and impaired myocardial perfusion. Scand Cardiovasc J 2010; 44: 15.
  • 14
    Rennenberg RJMW, Kessels AGH, Schurgers JL, van Engelshoven JMA, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA. Vascular calcification as a marker of increased cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2009; 5: 18597.
  • 15
    Budoff MJ, Hokanson JE, Nasir K et al. Progression of coronary artery calcium predicts all-cause mortality. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2010; 3: 122936.
  • 16
    Huang H, Virmani R, Younis H, Burke AP, Kamm RD, Lee RT. The impact of calcification on the biomechanical stability of atherosclerotic plaques. Circulation 2001; 103: 10516.
  • 17
    Nicoll R, Henein M. Extensive coronary calcification: a clinically unrecognised condition. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2010; 8: 7015.
  • 18
    Henein MY, Owen A Statins moderate coronary stenoses but not coronary calcification: results from meta-analyses. Int J Cardiol 2011; 153: 315.
  • 19
    Nicoll R, Henein MY. Calcific cardiac disease: a comprehensive investigation into its true nature. Int J Cardiol 2010; 145: 599600.
  • 20
    Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Thrombogenicity and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution. Blood 2011; 118: 240512.
  • 21
    Simkhovich BZ, Kleinman MT, Kloner RA. Particulate air pollution and coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Cardiol 2009; 24: 6049.
  • 22
    Fang SC, Cassidy A, Christiani DC. A systematic review of occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Int J Environ Public Health 2010; 7: 1773806.
  • 23
    Brook RD, Rajagopalan S. Particulate matter air pollution and atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2010; 12: 291300.
  • 24
    Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Stang A et al. Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J 2006; 27: 2696702.
  • 25
    Burgan O, Smargiassi A, Perron S, Kosatsky T. Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review. Eviron Health 2010; 9: 26.
  • 26
    Bell ML, Ebisu K, Peng RD, Samet JM, Dominici F. Hospital admissions and chemical composition of fina particle air pollution. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 179: 111520.
  • 27
    Toren K, Bergdahl IA, Nilsson T, Jarvholm B. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64: 5159.
  • 28
    Hesterberg TW, Long CM, Lapin CA, Hamada AK, Valberg PA. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and nanoparticle exposures: what do DEP human clinical studies tell us about potential human health hazards of nanoparticles?. Inhal Toxicol 2010; 22: 67994.
  • 29
    Lucking AJ, Lundback M, Mills NL et al. Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 304351.
  • 30
    Sun Q, Yue P, Deiuliis JA et al. Ambient air pollution exaggerates adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Circulation 2009; 119: 53846.
  • 31
    Szyszkowicz M, Rowe BH, Brook RD. Even low levels of ambient air pollutants are associated with incrsed emergency department visits for hypertension. Can J Cardiol 2011 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 32
    Szyszkowicz M, Rowe BH. Air pollution and emergency department visits for chest pain and weakness in Edmonton, Canada. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2010; 23: 159.
  • 33
    Brook RD. Is air pollution a cause of cardiovascular disease? Updated review and controversies Rev Environ Health 2007; 22: 11537.
  • 34
    Mills NL, Donaldson K, Hadoke PW et al. Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 2009; 6: 3644.
  • 35
    Brook RD. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Clin Sci (Lond) 2008; 115: 17587.
  • 36
    Terzano C, Di Stefano F, Conti V, Graziani E, Petroianni A. Air pollution ultrafine particles: toxicity beyond the lung. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2010; 14: 80921.
  • 37
    Stone V, Johnston H, Clift MJ. Air pollution, ultrafine and nanoparticle technology: cellular and molecular interactions. IEEE Trans Nanobiosci. 2007; 6: 33140.
  • 38
    Kreyling WG, Semmler-Behnke M, Moller W. Ultrafine particle-lung interactions: does size matter?. J Aerosol Med 2006; 19: 7483.
  • 39
    Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2008; 26: 33962.
  • 40
    De Kok TM, Driece HA, Hogervorst JG, Briede JJ. Toxicological assessment of ambient and traffic-related particulate matter: a review of recent studies. Mutat Res 2006; 613: 10322.
  • 41
    Pope CA 3rd, Burnett RT, Turner MC et al. Lung cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality associated with ambient air pollution and cigarette smoke: shape of the exposure-response relationships. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 161621.
  • 42
    Peters A. Air quality and cardiovascular health. Circulation 2009; 120: 9247.
  • 43
    Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA 3rd et al. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2010; 121: 233178.
  • 44
    Schwela D. Air pollution and health in urban areas. Rev Environ Health 2000; 15: 1342.
  • 45
    Chan CC, Chuang KJ, Su TC, Lin LY. Association between nitrogen dioxide and heart rate variability in a susceptible population. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2005; 12: 5806.
  • 46
    Szyszkowicz M. Air pollution and emergency department visits for ischaemic heart disease in Montreal, Canada. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2007; 20: 16773.
  • 47
    Zhang F, Li L, Krafft T, Lv J, Wang W, Pei D. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011; 8: 210923.
  • 48
    Zhang P, Dong G, Sun B et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e20827.
  • 49
    Bell ML, Dominici F, Samet JM. A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the national morbidity, mortality and air pollution study. Epidemiology 2005; 16: 43645.
  • 50
    Chen H, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ. A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Rev Environ Health 2008; 23: 24397.
  • 51
    Babisch W. Road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk. Noise Health 2008; 10: 2733.
  • 52
    Ndrepepa A, Twardella D. Relationship between noise annoyance from road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases: a meta-analysis. Noise Health 2011; 13: 2519.
  • 53
    Stansfeld S, Crombie R. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in the United Kingdom. Noise Health 2011; 13: 22939.
  • 54
    Sacks JD, Stanek LW, Luben TJ et al. Particulate matter-induced health effects: who is susceptible?. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 44654.
  • 55
    Laumbach RJ. Outdoor air pollutants and patient health. Am Fam Physician 2010; 81: 17580.
  • 56
    Latini G, Gallo F, Iughetti L. Toxic environment and obesity pandemia: is there a relationship?. It J Pediatr 2010; 36: 8.
  • 57
    Grun F, Blumberg B. Perturbed nuclear receptor signalling by environmental obesogens as emerging factors in the obesity crisis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2007; 8: 16171.
  • 58
    Schindler C, Keidel D, Gerbase MW et al. Improvements in PM10 exposure and reduced rates of respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Swiss adults (SAPALDIA). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2009; 179: 57987.
  • 59
    Mackay DF, Irfan MO, Haw S, Pell JP. Meta-analysis of the effect of comprehensive smoke-free legislation on acute coronary events. Heart 2010; 96: 152530.
  • 60
    Vasselli S, Papini P, Gaelone D et al. Reduction incidence of myocardial infarction associated with a national legislative ban on smoking. Minerva Cardioangiol 2008; 56: 197203.