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Keywords:

  • Confocal;
  • microscope;
  • fluorescence

Summary

In this short review, we present a self-contained discussion of the image formation properties of the fluorescent confocal microscope. The optical sectioning or depth discrimination property is discussed in detail and new analytic formulae are presented, which relate the optical sectioning strength to the wavelength, numerical aperture and pinhole aperture size in a particularly simple fashion.