• 1
    Gozes I, Brenneman DE. VIP: molecular biology and neurobiological function. Mol Neurobiol 1989; 3: 201236.
  • 2
    Sherwood NM, Krueckl SL, McRory JE. The origin and function of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) /glucagon superfamily. Endocrine Rev 2000; 21: 619670.
  • 3
    Waschek JA. Multiple actions of pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide in nervous system development and regeneration. Dev Neurosci 2002; 24: 1423.
  • 4
    Moody TW, Hill JM, Jensen RT. VIP as a trophic factor in the CNS and cancer cells. Peptides 2003; 24: 163177.
  • 5
    Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D. The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation. Pharmacol Rev 2004; 56: 249290.
  • 6
    Ishihara T, Shigemoto R, Mori K, Takahashi K, Nagata S. Functional expression and tissue distribution of a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Neuron 1992; 8: 811819.
  • 7
    Lutz EM, Sheward WJ, West KM, Morrow JA, Fink G, Harmar AJ. The VIP2 receptor: molecular characterisation of a cDNA encoding a novel receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide. FEBS Lett 1993; 334: 38.
  • 8
    Pisegna JR, Wank SA. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type-I receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 63456349.
  • 9
    Harmar AJ, Arimura A, Gozes I, Journot L, Laburthe M, Pisegna JR, Rawlings SR, Robberecht P, Said SI, Sreedharan SP, Wank SA, Waschek JA. International Union of Pharmacology. XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Pharmacol Rev 1998; 50: 265270.
  • 10
    Spengler D, Waeber C, Pantaloni C, Holsboer F, Bockaert J, Seeburg PH, Journot L. Differential signal transduction by five splice variants of the PACAP receptor. Nature 1993; 365: 170175.
  • 11
    Pantaloni C, Brabet P, Bilanges B, Dumuis A, Houssami S, Spengler D, Bockaert J, Journot L. Alternative splicing in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor modulates receptor selectivity and relative potencies of PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 in phospholipase C activation. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 2214622151.
  • 12
    Braas KM, May V. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides directly stimulate sympathetic neuron neuropeptide Y release through PAC1 receptor isoform activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 2770227710.
  • 13
    Dautzenberg FM, Mevenkamp G, Wille S, Hauger RL. N-terminal splice variants of the type I PACAP receptor: isolation, characterization and ligand binding/selectivity determinants. J Neuroendocrinol 1999; 11: 941949.
  • 14
    Lutz EM, Ronaldson E, Shaw P, Johnson MS, Holland PJ, Mitchell R. Characterization of novel splice variants of the PAC1 receptor in human neuroblastoma cells: consequences for signaling by VIP and PACAP. Mol Cell Neurosci 2006; 31: 193209.
  • 15
    Grinninger C, Wang W, Oskoui KB, Voice JK, Goetzl EJ. A natural variant type II G protein-coupled receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide with altered function. J Biol Chem 2004; 279: 4025940262.
  • 16
    McCulloch DA, MacKenzie CJ, Johnson MS, Robertson DN, Holland PJ, Ronaldson E, Lutz EM, Mitchell R. Additional signals from VPAC/PAC family receptors. Biochem Soc Trans 2002; 30: 441446.
  • 17
    McCulloch D, Lutz EM, Johnson MS, Robertson DN, MacKenzie CJ, Holland PJ, Mitchell R. ADP-ribosylation factor-dependent phospholipase D activation by VPAC receptors and a PAC(1) receptor splice variant. Mol Pharmacol 2001; 59: 15231532.
  • 18
    Ronaldson E, Robertson DN, Johnson MS, Holland PJ, Mitchell R, Lutz EM. Specific interaction between the hop1 intracellular loop 3 domain of the human PAC1 receptor and ARF. Regul Pept 2002; 109: 193198.
  • 19
    Usdin TB, Bonner TI, Mezey E. Two receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide with similar specificity and complementary distributions. Endocrinology 1994; 135: 26622680.
  • 20
    Sheward WJ, Lutz EM, Harmar AJ. The distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide2 receptor messenger RNA in the rat brain and pituitary gland as assessed by in-situ hybridization. Neuroscience 1995; 67: 409418.
  • 21
    Rawlings SR, Piuz I, Schlegel W, Bockaert J, Journot L. Differential expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide/vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor subtypes in clonal pituitary somatotrophs and gonadotrophs. Endocrinology 1995; 136: 20882098.
  • 22
    Vertongen P, Velkeniers B, Hooghe-Peters E, Robberecht P. Differential alternative splicing of PACAP receptor in pituitary cell subpopulations. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1995; 113: 131135.
  • 23
    Wei Y, Mojsov S. Tissue specific expression of different human receptor types for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: implications for their role in human physiology. J Neuroendocrinol 1996; 8: 811817.
  • 24
    Hezareh M, Journot L, Bépoldin L, Schlegel W, Rawlings SR. PACAP/VIP receptor subtypes, signal transducers, and effectors in pituitary cells. Ann NY Acad Sci 1996; 805: 315327.
  • 25
    MacKenzie CJ, Lutz EM, Johnson MS, Robertson DN, Holland PJ, Mitchell R. Mechanisms of phospholipase C activation by the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 2 receptor. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 12091217.
  • 26
    Cazillis M, Gonzalez BJ, Billardon C, Lombet A, Fraichard A, Samarut J, Gressens P, Vaudry H, Rostène W. VIP and PACAP induce selective neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Eur J Neurosci 2004; 19: 798808.
  • 27
    Hirose M, Hashimoto H, Shintani N, Nakanishi M, Arakawa N, Iga J, Niwa H, Miyazaki J-I, Baba A. Differential expression of mRNAs for PACAP and its receptors during neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Regul Pept 2005; 126: 109113.
  • 28
    Sheward WJ, Lutz EM, Harmar AJ. The presence of messenger RNA for subtypes of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor during development of the mouse embryo. J Physiol (Lond) 1996; 491: 96P97P.
  • 29
    Vertongen P, Schiffmann SN, Gourlet P, Robberecht P. Autoradiographic visualization of the receptor subclasses for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in rat brain. Peptides 1997; 18: 15471554.
  • 30
    Delgado M, Martinez C, Johnson MC, Gomariz RP, Ganea D. Differential expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors 1 and 2 (VIP-R1 and VIP-R2) mRNA in murine lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 1996; 68: 2738.
  • 31
    Delgado M, Munoz-Elias EJ, Kan Y, Gozes I, Fridkin M. Brenneman DE, Gomariz RP, Ganea D. VIP and PACAP inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha transcriptional activation by regulating nuclear factor-κb and cAMP response element-binding protein/c-Jun. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 3142731436.
  • 32
    Voice JK, Dorsam G, Lee H, Kong Y, Goetzl EJ. Allergic diathesis in transgenic mice with constitutive T cell expression of inducible vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor. FASEB J 2001; 15: 24892496.
  • 33
    Dickinson T, Mitchell R, Robberecht P, Fleetwood-Walker SM. The role of VIP/PACAP receptor subtypes in spinal somatosensory processing in rats with an experimental peripheral mononeuropathy. Neuropharmacology 1999; 38: 167180.
  • 34
    Garry EM, Delaney A, Blackburn-Munro G, Dickinson T, Moss A, Kakalembe I, Roberston DC, Rosie R, Robberecht P, Mitchell R, Fleetwood-Walker SM. Activation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinase in neuropathic pain: involvement of VPAC2 and NK2 receptors and mediation by spinal glia. Mol Cell Neurosci 2005; 30: 523537.
  • 35
    Lutz EM, Shen SB, Mackay M, West K, Harmar AJ. Structure of the human VIPR2 gene for vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2. FEBS Lett 1999; 458: 197203.
  • 36
    Asano E, Kuivaniemi H, Huq M, Tromp G, Behen M, Rothermel R, Herron J, Chugani DC. A study of novel polymorphisms in the upstream region of vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor type 2 gene in autism. J Child Neurol 2001; 16: 357363.
  • 37
    Inagaki N, Yoshida H, Mizuta M, Mizuno N, Fujii Y, Gonoi T, Miyazaki J, Seino S. Cloning and functional characterization of a 3rd pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype expressed in insulin-secreting cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 26792683.
  • 38
    Lo K, Smale ST. Generality of a functional initiator consensus sequence. Gene 1996; 182: 1322.
  • 39
    Wingender E, Kel AE, Kel OV, Karas H, Heinemeyer T, Dietze P, Knuppel R, Romaschenko AG, Kolchanov NA. TRANSFAC, TRRD and COMPEL: towards a federated system on transcriptional regulation. Nucl Acids Res 1997; 25: 265268.
  • 40
    Leclerc GM, Boockfor FR. Pulses of prolactin promoter activity depend on a noncanonical E-Box that can bind the circadian proteins CLOCK and BMAL1. Endocrinology 2005; 146: 27822790.
  • 41
    Poulin G, Lebel M, Chamberland M, Paridis FW, Drouin J. Specific protein–protein interaction between basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and homeoproteins of the Pitx family. Mol Cell Biol 2000; 20: 48264837.
  • 42
    Lok S, Kuijper JL, Jelinek LJ, Kramer JM, Whitmore TE, Sprecher CA, Mathewes S, Grant FJ, Biggs SH, Rosenberg GB, Sheppard PO, O'Hara PJ, Foster DC, Kindsvoel W. The human glucagon receptor encoding gene: structure, cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization. Gene 1994; 140: 203209.
  • 43
    Pei L. Genomic structure and embryonic expression of the rat type I vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor gene. Regul Pept 1997; 71: 153161.
  • 44
    Hashimoto H, Nishino A, Shintani N, Hagihara N, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Yamamoto K, Matsuda T, Ishihara T, Nagata S, Baba A. Genomic organization and chromosomal location of the mouse vasoactive intestinal polypeptide 1 (VPAC1) receptor. Genomics 1999; 58: 9093.
  • 45
    Ho P-K, Fong RS, Kai HS, Lau EH, Ngan ES, Cotton CU, Chow BK. The human secretin receptor gene: genomic organization and promoter characterization. FEBS Lett 1999; 455: 209214.
  • 46
    Lin S-C, Lin CR, Gukovsky I, Lusis AJ, Sawchenko PE, Rosenfeld MG. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Nature 1993; 364: 208213.
  • 47
    Maget B, Tastenoy M, Svoboda M. Sequencing of eleven introns in genomic DNA encoding rat glucagon receptor and multiple alternative splicing of its mRNA. FEBS Lett 1994; 351: 271275.
  • 48
    Sreedharan SP, Huang JX, Cheung MC, Goetzl EJ. Structure, expression, and chromosomal localization of the type-I human vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92: 29392943.
  • 49
    Tsai-Morris CH, Buczko E, Geng Y, Gamboa-Pinto A, Dufau ML. The genomic structure of the rat corticotropin releasing factor receptor: a member of the class II G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 1451914525.
  • 50
    Breathnach R, Benoist C, O'Hare K, Gannon F, Chambon P. Ovalbumin gene: evidence for a leader sequence in mRNA and DNA sequences at the exon-intron boundaries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1978; 75: 48534857.
  • 51
    Carninci P, Sandelin A, Lenhard B, Katayama S, Shimokawa K, Ponjavic J, Semple CA, Taylor MS, Engström PG, Frith MC, Forrest AR, Alkema WB, Tan SL, Plessy C, Kodzius R, Ravasi T, Kasukawa T, Fukuda S, Kanamori-Katayama M, Kitazume Y, Kawaji H, Kai C, Nakamura M, Konno H, Nakano K, Mottagui-Tabar S, Arner P, Chesi A, Gustincich S, Perichetti F, Suzuki H, Grimmond SM, Wells CA, Orlando V, Wahlestedt C, Liu ET, Harbers M, Kawai J, Bajic VB, Hume DA, Hayashizaki Y. Genome-wide analysis of mammalian promoter architecture and evolution. Nature Genet 2006; 38: 626634.
  • 52
    McCuaig KA, Lee HS, Clarke JC, Assar H, Horsford J, White JH. Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related peptide receptor gene transcripts are expressed from tissue-specific and ubiquitous promoters. Nucl Acids Res 1995; 23: 19481955.
  • 53
    Chatterjee TK, Liu X, Davisson RL, Fisher RA. Structural organization of the rat pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor gene: evidence for alternative splicing in the 5′-untranslated region. FASEB J 1996; 10: 2255.
  • 54
    Geiger A, Decaux JF, Burcelin R, Cam Al Salazar G, Charron MJ, Girard J, Kirvan A. Structural and functional characterizations of the 5′-flanking region of the mouse glucagon receptor gene: comparison with the rat gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 272: 912921.
  • 55
    Minagawa M, Kwan MY, Bettoun JD, Mansour FW, Dassa J, Hendy GN, Goltzman D, White JH. Dissection of differentially regulated (G+C) -rich promoters of the human parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor gene. Endocrinology 2000; 141: 24102421.
  • 56
    Anusaksathien O, Laplace C, Li X, Ren Y, Peng L, Goldring SR, Galson DL. Tissue-specific and ubiquitous promoters direct the expression of alternatively spliced transcripts from the calcitonin receptor gene. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 2266322674.
  • 57
    Catalano RD, Kyriakou T, Chen J, Easton A, Hillhouse EW. Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone type 2 receptors by multiple promoters and alternative splicing: identification of multiple splice variants. Mol Endocrinol 2003; 17: 395410.
  • 58
    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nature Genet 2004; 36: 4045.
  • 59
    Mount SM. A catalogue of splice junction sequences. Nucl Acids Res 1982; 10: 459472.
  • 60
    Smale ST, Kadonaga JT. The RNA polymerase II core promoter. Annu Rev Biochem 2003; 72: 449479.
  • 61
    Cross SH, Bird AP. CpG islands and genes. Curr Opin Gen Dev 1995; 5: 309314.
  • 62
    Robinson PN, Böhme U, Lopez R, Mundlos S, Nürnberg P. Gene–ontology analysis reveals association of tissue-specific 5′-CpG-island genes with development and embryogenesis. Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13: 19691978.
  • 63
    Zolnierowicz S, Cron P, Solinas-Toldo S, Fries R, Lin HY, Hemmings BA. Isolation, characterization, and chromosomal localization of the porcine calcitonin receptor gene. J Biol Chem 1994; 269: 1953019538.
  • 64
    Burcelin R, Li J, Charron MJ. Cloning and sequence analysis of the murine glucagon receptor-encoding gene. Gene 1995; 164: 305310.
  • 65
    Pei L, Melmed S. Characterization of the rat vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor gene 5′ region. Biochem J 1995; 308: 719723.
  • 66
    Lankat-Buttgereit B, Göke B. Cloning and characterization of the 5′ flanking sequences (promoter region) of the human GLP-1 receptor gene. Peptides 1997; 18: 617624.
  • 67
    Williams LJ, Abou-Samra AB. The transcription factors SP1 and MAZ regulate expression of the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor gene. J Mol Endocrinol 2000; 25: 309319.
  • 68
    Geiger A, Salazar G, Kervran A. Role of the Sp family of transcription factors on glucagon receptor gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001; 285: 838844.
  • 69
    Pang RT, Lee LT, Ng SS, Yung WH, Chow BK. CpG methylation and transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 regulate the expression of the human secretin receptor gene. Mol Endocrinol 2004; 18: 471483.
  • 70
    Butler JE, Kadonaga JT. The RNA polymerase II core promoter: a key component in the regulation of gene expression. Genes Dev 2002; 16: 25832592.
  • 71
    Ménard C, Hein P, Paquin A, Savvelson A, Yang XM, Lederfein D, Barnabé-Heider F, Mir AA, Sterneck E, Peterson AC, Johnson PF, Vinson C, Miller FD. An essential role for a MEK-C/EBP pathway during growth factor-regulated cortical neurogenesis. Neuron 2002; 36: 597610.
  • 72
    Lee JE. Basic helix-loop-helix genes in neural development. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1997; 7: 1320.
  • 73
    Scully KM, Rosenfeld MG. Pituitary development: regulatory codes in mammalian organogenesis. Science 2002; 295: 22312235.
  • 74
    Muñoz E, Brewer M, Baler R. Modulation of BMAL/CLOCK/E-Box complex activity by a CT-rich cis-acting element. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006; 252: 7481.
  • 75
    Cagampang FR, Sheward WJ, Harmar AJ, Piggins HD, Coen CW. Circadian changes in the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide 2 receptor mRNA in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1998; 54: 108112.
  • 76
    DeBerardinis RJ, Kazazian HH Jr. Analysis of the promoter from an expanding mouse retrotransposon subfamily. Genomics 1999; 56: 317323.
  • 77
    Mears ML, Hutchison CA III. The evolution of modern lineages of mouse L1 elements. J Mol Evol 2001; 52: 5162.
  • 78
    Shrivastava A, Calame K. An analysis of genes regulated by the multi-functional transcriptional regulator Yin Yang-1. Nucl Acids Res 1994; 22: 51515155.