SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Barker DJP. Mothers, Babies and Disease. London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1994.
  • 2
    Lewis RM, Poore KR, Godfrey KM. The role of the placenta in the developmental origins of health and disease – implications for practise. Rev Gynecol Perinat Pract 2006; 6: 7079.
  • 3
    Fowden AL, Giussani DA, Forhead AJ. Intrauterine programming of physiological systems: causes and consequences. Physiology 2006; 21: 2937.
  • 4
    McMillen IC, Robinson JS. Developmental origins of metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity and programming. Physiol Rev 2005; 85: 571633.
  • 5
    Fowden AL, Ward JW, Woods FPB, Forhead AJ, Constancia M. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity. J Physiol 2006; 572: 515.
  • 6
    Lucas A. Programming by early nutrition in man. Ciba Foundation Symp 1991; 156: 3850.
  • 7
    Fowden AL, Forhead AJ. Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming. Reproduction 2004; 127: 515526.
  • 8
    Mellor DJ. Nutritional and placental determinants of foetal growth rate in sheep and consequences for the newborn lamb. Br Vet J 1983; 139: 307324.
  • 9
    Baur R. Morphometry of the placental exchange area. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 1977; 53: 163.
  • 10
    Allen WR, Wilsher S, Turnbull C, Stewart F, Ousey J, Rossdale PD, Fowden AL. Influence of maternal size on placental, fetal and postnatal growth in the horse: I Development in utero. Reproduction 2002; 123: 454465.
  • 11
    Wilson ME, Biensen NJ, Young CR, Ford SP. Development of Meishan and Yorkshire litter mate conceptures in either a Meishan or Yorkshire uterine environment to day 90 of gestation or to term. Biol Reprod 1998; 58: 905910.
  • 12
    Stegeman HJ. Placental development in the sheep and its relation to fetal development. Bijdr Dierkunde 1975; 44: 373.
  • 13
    Owens JA, Falconer J, Robinson JS. Restriction of placental size in the sheep enhances the efficiency of placental transfer of antipyrine, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose but not of urea. J Dev Physiol 1987; 9: 457464.
  • 14
    Wallace JM, Aiken RP, Milne JS, Hay WW. Nutritionally mediated placental growth restriction in the growing adolescent: consequences for the fetus. Biol Reprod 2004; 71: 10551062.
  • 15
    Fernandez-Twinn DS, Ozanne SE, Ekizoglou S, Doherty C, James L, Gusterson B, Hales CN. The maternal endocrine environment in the low protein model of intrauterine growth restriction. Br J Nutr 2003; 90: 875822.
  • 16
    Lederman SA, Rosso P. Effects of food restriction on fetal and placental growth and maternal body composition. Growth 1980; 44: 7788.
  • 17
    Lesage J, Hahn D, Leonhardt M, Bondeau B, Breant B, Duprey JP. Maternal undernutrition during late gestation-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat is associated with impaired placental GLUT3 expression but does not correlate with endogenous corticosterone levels. J Endocrinol 2002; 174: 3743.
  • 18
    Roberts CT, Sohlstrom A, Kind KL, Karl RA, Khong TY, Robinson JS, Owens PC, Owens JA. Maternal food restriction reduces the exchange surface area and increases the barrier thickness of the placenta in the guinea-pig. Placenta 2001; 22: 177185.
  • 19
    Holst PJ, Allan CJ, Gilmour AR. Effects of restricted diet during mid pregnancy of ewes on uterine and fetal growth and lamb birth weight. Aust J Agric Res 1992; 43: 315324.
  • 20
    Ross JC, Fennessey PV, Wilkening RP, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Placental transport and fetal utilization of leucine in a model of fetal growth retardation. Am J Physiol 1996; 270: E491E503.
  • 21
    Thureen PJ, Trembler KA, Meschia G, Makowski EL, Wilkening RB. Placental glucose transport in heat-induced fetal growth retardation. Am J Physiol 1992; 263: R578R585.
  • 22
    Ain R, Canhan LN, Soares MJ. Dexamethasane-induced intrauterine growth retardation impacts the placental prolactin family, insulin-like growth factor-II and Akt signaling pathway. J Endocrinol 2005; 185: 253263.
  • 23
    Jensen EG, Gallaher BW, Breier BH, Harding JE. The effect of chronic maternal cortisol infusion on the late-gestation fetal sheep. J Endo 2002; 174: 2736.
  • 24
    Johnson JWC, Mitzner W, London WT, Palmer AE, Scott R. Betamethasone and the rhesus fetus: multisystemic effects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 133: 677684.
  • 25
    Bacon BJ, Gilbert RD, Kaufmann P, Smith AD, Trevino FT, Longo LD. Placental anatomy and diffusing capacity in guinea pigs following long-term maternal hypoxia. Placenta 1984; 5: 475487.
  • 26
    Penninga L, Longo LD. Ovine placentome morphology: effect of high altitude, long-term hypoxia. Placenta 1998; 19: 187193.
  • 27
    Zamudio S, Baumann MU, Illsley NP. Effects of chronic hypoxia in vivo on the expression of human placental glucose transporters. Placenta 2006; 27: 4955.
  • 28
    Das UG, Farouk Sadiq H, Soares MJ, Hay WW, Devaskar SU. Time dependent physiological regulation of rodent and ovine glucose transporter (GLUT-1) protein. Am J Physiol 1998; 274: R339R347.
  • 29
    Reid GJ, Lane RH, Flozak AS, Simmons RA. Placental expression of glucose transporter proteins 1 and 3 in growth restricted fetal rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 10171023.
  • 30
    Constancia M, Angiolini E, Sandovic I, Smith P, Smith R, Kelsey G, Dean W, Ferguson-Smith A, Sibley C, Reik W, Fowden AL. Adaptation of nutrient supply to fetal demand in the mouse involves interaction between the Igf2 gene and placental transporter systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 1921919224.
  • 31
    Li L-L, Keverne EB, Aparicio SA, Ishino F, Barton SC, Surani MA. Regulation of maternal behaviour and offspring growth by paternally expressed Peg3. Science 1999; 284: 330333.
  • 32
    Hafner E., Metzenbauer M, Hofinger D, Munkel M, Gassner R, Schuchter K, Dillinger-Paller B, Philipp K. Placental growth from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy in SGA-foetuses and pre-eclamptic pregnancies compared to normal foetuses. Placenta 2003; 24: 336342.
  • 33
    Thame M, Osmond C, Bennett P, Wilks R, Forrester T. Fetal growth is directly related to maternal anthropometry and placental volume. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58: 894900.
  • 34
    Ward JW, Wooding FBP, Fowden AL. The effect of cortisol on the binucleate cell population in the ovine placenta during late gestation. Placenta 2002; 23: 451458.
  • 35
    Regnault TRH, Friedman JE, Wilkening RB, Anthony RV, Hay WW. Fetoplacental transport and utilization of amino acids in IUGR. A review. Placenta 2005; 26(Suppl 1): S52S62.
  • 36
    Gardner DS, Ward JW, Giussani DA, Fowden AL. The effects of a reversible period of adverse intrauterine conditions during late gestation on fetal and placental weight and placetome distribution in sheep. Placenta 2002; 23: 459466.
  • 37
    Ward JW, Forhead AJ, Wooding FBP, Fowden AL. Functional significance and cortisol dependence of the gross morphology of ovine placetome during late gestation. Biol Reprod 2006; 74: 137145.
  • 38
    Heasman L, Clarke L, Stephenson TJ, Symonds ME. The influence of maternal nutrient restriction in early to mid-gestation on placental and fetal development in sheep. Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58: 283288.
  • 39
    Ward JW, Wooding FPB, Fowden AL. Ovine feto-placental metabolism. J Physiol 2004; 554: 529541.
  • 40
    Reshetnikova OS, Burton GJ, Miloranov AP. Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on the feto-placental unit; the morphometric diffusing capacity of the villous membrane at high altitude. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171: 15601565.
  • 41
    Sibley CP, Coan PM, Ferguson-Smith AC, Dean W, Hughes J, Smith P, Reik W, Burton GB, Fowden AL, Constancia M. Placenta-specific Igf2 regulates the diffusional exchange characteristics of the mouse placenta. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 82048208.
  • 42
    Lopez MF, Dikkes P, Zurakowski D, Villa-Komarott L. Insulin-like growth factor II affects the appearance and glycogen content of glycogen cells in the murine placenta. Endocrinology 1996; 137: 21002108.
  • 43
    Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M. Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth. Hormone Res 2006; 65(Suppl. 3): 4957.
  • 44
    Dugoff L, Lynch AM, Cioffi-Regan D, Hobbins JC, Schultz LK, Malone FD, D’Alton ME. First trimester uterine artery Doppler abnormalities predict subsequent intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193: 12081212.
  • 45
    Brosens I, Dixon HG, Robertson WB. Fetal growth retardation and the arteries of the placental bed. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1977; 84: 656663.
  • 46
    Pijnenborg R, Vercruysse L, Hanssens M. The uterine spiral arteries in human pregnancy: facts and controversies. Placenta 2006; 27: 939958.
  • 47
    Toal M, Chan C, Fallah S, Alkazalen F, Chaddha V, Winderm RC, Kingdom JC. Usefulness of a placental profile in high-risk pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 196: 3631.
  • 48
    Burton GJ, Jauniaux E. Placental oxidative stress; from miscarriage to preeclampsia. J Soc Gynecol Invest 2004; 11: 342352.
  • 49
    Cindrova-Davies T, Spasic-Boskovic O, Jauniaux E, Charnock-Jones DS, Burton GJ. Nuclear factor-kappa B, p38, and stress-activated protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways regulate proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in human placental explants in response to oxidative stress: effects of antioxidant vitamins. Am J Pathol 2007; 170: 15111520.
  • 50
    Cindrova-Davies T, Yung HW, Johns J, Spasic-Boskovic O, Korolchuks S, Jauniaux E, Burton GJ, Charnock-Jones DS. Oxidative stress, gene expression, and protein changes induced in the human pacenta during labor. Am J Pathol 2007; 171: 11681179.
  • 51
    Hung TH, Skepper JN, Burton GJ. In vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury in term human placenta as a model for oxidative stress in pathological pregnancies. Am J Pathol 2001; 159: 10311043.
  • 52
    Kingdom JCP, Kaufmann P. Oxygen and placental villous development: origins of fetal hypoxia. Placenta 1997; 18: 613621.
  • 53
    Biensen NJ, Wilson ME, Ford SP. The impacts of uterine environment and fetal genotype as conceptus size and placental vascularity during late gestation in pigs. J Anim Sci 1999; 77: 954959.
  • 54
    Redmer DA, Wallace JM, Reynolds LP. Effect of nutrient intake during pregnancy on fetal and placental growth and vascular development. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2004; 27: 199217.
  • 55
    Reynolds LP, Borawicz PP, Vonnahme KA, Johnson ML, Grazul-Bilska AT, Wallace JM, Caton JS, Redmer DA. Animal models of placental angiogenesis. Placenta 2005; 26: 689708.
  • 56
    Carver TD, Hay WW. Uteroplacental carbon substrate metabolism and oxygen consumption after long term hypoglycaemia in pregnant sheep. Am J Physiol 1995; 269: E299E308.
  • 57
    Jellyman JK, Gardner DS, Fowden AL, Guissani DA. Effects of dexamethasone on the uterine and umbilical vascular beds during basal and hypoxemic conditions in sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190: 825835.
  • 58
    Wallace JM, Bourke DA, Aitken RP, Milne S, Hay WW. Placental glucose transport in growth restricted pregnancies induced by overnourishing adolescent sheep. J Physiol 2002; 547: 8594.
  • 59
    Timmerman M, Teng C, Wilkening RP, Fennessey P, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Effect of dexamethasone on fetal hepatic glutamine-glutamate exchange. Am J Physiol 2000; 278: E839E845.
  • 60
    Ericsson A, Saljok Sjostrand E, Jawson N, Prasad PD, Powell TL, Jansson T. Brief hyperglycaemia in the early pregnant rat increases fetal weight at term by stimulating placental growth and affecting placental nutrient transport. J Physiol 2007; 581: 13231332.
  • 61
    Harding JE, Evans PC, Gluckman PD. Maternal growth hormone treatment increases placental diffusion capacity but not fetal or placental growth in sheep. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 53525358.
  • 62
    Wooding FBP, Fowden AL, Bell AW, Ehrhardt RA, Limesad SW, Hay WW. Localisation of glucose transport in the ruminant placenta: implications for sequential use of transorter isoforms. Placenta 2005; 26: 626640.
  • 63
    Limesand SW, Regnault TRH, Hay WW. Characterisation of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the ovine placenta of normal and growth restricted fetuses. Placenta 2005; 25: 7077.
  • 64
    Boileau P, Mrejen C, Girard J, Harguel de Mouzon S. Over expression of GLUT3 placental glucose transporter in diabetic rats. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 309317.
  • 65
    Jansson T, Wennergren M, Powell TL. Placental glucose transport and GLUT1 expression in insulin-dependent diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180: 163168.
  • 66
    Sciullo E, Cardellini G, Baroni M, Torresi P, Massiotti F, Pozzilli P, Falluca F. Glucose transporters (GLUT1;GLUT3) mRNA in human placenta of diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies. Ann First Supersanita 1997; 33: 361365.
  • 67
    Kevorkova O, Ethier-Chiasson M, Laford J. Differential expression of glucose transport in rabbit placenta: effect of hypercholesterolemia in dams. Biol Reprod 2007; 76: 487495.
  • 68
    Dandrea J, Wilson ME, Gopalakrishna G, Heasman L, Budpa H, Stephenson T, Symonds ME. Maternal nutritional manipulation of placental growth and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) abundance in sheep. Reproduction 2001; 122: 793800.
  • 69
    Bell AW, Hay WW, Ehrhardt RA. Placental transport of nutrients and its implications for fetal growth. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1999; 54: 401410.
  • 70
    Das UG, He J, Ehrhardt RA, Hay WW, Devaskar SW. Time dependent physiological regulation of ovine placental Glut-3 transporter protein. Am J Physiol 2000; 279: R2252R2261.
  • 71
    Hahn T, Barth S, Graf R, Engleman M, Beslapic D, Reul JM, Holsboer F, Dohr G, Desoye G. Placental glucose transporter expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84: 14451452.
  • 72
    Langdown ML, Sugden MC. Enhanced placental GLUT1 and GLUT3 expression in dexamethasone-induced fetal growth retardation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 185: 109117.
  • 73
    Pickard MR, Sinha AK, Ogilvie LM, Leonard AJ, Edwards PR, Klaus RP. Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta. J Endocrinol 1999; 163: 385394.
  • 74
    Feil D, Lane M, Roberts CT, Kelley RL, Edwards LJ, Thompson JC, Kind KL. Effect of culturing mouse embryos under different oxygen concentrations on the subsequent fetal and placental development. J Physiol 2006; 572: 8796.
  • 75
    Baumann MU, Zammudio S, Illsley NP. Hypoxic upregulation of glucose transporters in Bewo choriocarcinoma cells is mediated by hypoxia-inducible-factor 1. Am J Physiol 2007; 293: C477C485.
  • 76
    Zhou A, Bondy CA. Placental transporter gene expression and metabolism in the rat. J Clin Invest 1993; 91: 845852.
  • 77
    Currie MJ, Bassett NS, Gluckman PD. Ovine glucose transporter-1 and –3: partial sequence and development expression in the placenta. Placenta 1996; 18: 393401.
  • 78
    Jansson N, Pettersson J, Haafiz A, Ericsson A, Palmberg I, Tranberg M, Ganapathy V, Powell TH, Jannsson T. Downregulation of placental transport of amino acids precedes the development of intrauterine growth restriction in rats fed a low protein diet. J Physiol 2006; 576: 935946.
  • 79
    Jones HN, Ashworth CJ, Page KR, McArdle HJ. Expression and adaptive regulation of amino acid transport system A in a placental cell line under amino acid restriction. Reproduction 2006; 131: 951960.
  • 80
    Jansson T, Powell TL. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential intervention approaches. Clin Sci 2007; 113: 113.
  • 81
    Jansson T, Yives K, Wengren M, Powell TL. Glucose transport and system A activity in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous and basal membranes in intrauterine growth retardation. Placenta 2002; 23: 386391.
  • 82
    Norberg S, Powell TL, Jansson T. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with a reduced activity of placental taurine transporters. Pediatr Res 1998; 44: 233238.
  • 83
    Sibley C, Turner MA, Cetin I, Ayuk P, Boyd R, D’Souza SW, Glazier JD, Greenwood SL, Jansson T, Powell T. Placental phenotypes of intrauterine growth. Ped Res 2005; 58: 827832.
  • 84
    Reusens B, Remade C. Programming of the endocrine pancreas by the early nutritional environment. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006; 38: 913922.
  • 85
    Matthews JC, Beveridge MJ, Dialynas E, Bartke A, Kilberg MS, Novak DA. Placental anionic and cationic amino acid transporter expression in growth hormone over expressing and null IGF-II or null IGF-I receptor mice. Placenta 1991; 20: 639650.
  • 86
    Fowden AL. The insulin-like growth factors and feto-placental growth. Placenta 2003; 24: 803812.
  • 87
    Fowden AL. Comparative aspects of fetal carbohydrate metabolism. Equine Vet J 1997; 24(Suppl): 1925.
  • 88
    Carter AM. Placental oxygen consumption. Part I: in vivo studies-a review. Placenta 2000; 21(Suppl. A): S31S37.
  • 89
    Hay WW. Regulation of placental metabolism by glucose supply. Reprod Fertil Dev 1995; 7: 365375.
  • 90
    Liu L, Harding JE, Evans PC, Gluckman PD. Maternal insulin-like growth factor-I infusion alters feto-placental carbohydrate and protein metabolism in pregnant sheep. Endocrinology 1994; 135: 895900.
  • 91
    DiGiacomo JE, Hay WW. Regulation of placental glucose transfer and consumption by fetal glucose production. Ped Res 1989; 25: 429434.
  • 92
    Molina RD, Meschia G, Battaglia FC, Hay WW. Gestational maturation of placental glucose transfer capacity in sheep. Am J Physiol 1991; 261: R697R704.
  • 93
    Harding JE, Liu L, Evans PC, Gluckman PD. Insulin-like growth factor I alters feto-placental protein and carbohydrate metabolism in fetal sheep. Endocrinology 1994; 134: 15091514.
  • 94
    Bloomfirld FH, Oliver MH, Hawkins P, Holloway AC, Campbell M, Gluckman PD, Harding JE, Challis JRG. Perconceptual undernutrition in sheep accelerates maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in late gestation. Endocrinology 2004; 145: 42784285.
  • 95
    Sferruzzi-Perri AN, Owens JA, Pringle KG, Robinson JS, Roberts CT. Maternal insulin-like growth factors-I and -II act via different pathways to promote fetal growth. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 33443355.
  • 96
    Bauer MK, Harding JE, Bassett NS, Breier BM, Oliver MH, Gallaher BH, Evans PC, Woodall SM, Gluckman PD. Fetal growth and placental function. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1998; 140: 115120.
  • 97
    Chowden JA, Evian-Brion D, Pozo J, Alsat E, Garcia-Segura LH, Argente J. Decreased expression of placental growth hormone in intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr Res 1996; 39: 736739.
  • 98
    Binienda A, Marsmann A, Mitchell MD, Gleed RD, Figueroa JP, Nathanielsz PW. Effect of food withdrawal on arterial blood glucose and plasma 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α concentrations and nocturnal myometrial electromyographic activity in the pregnant rhesus monkey in the last third of gestation: a mode of preterm labor? Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989; 160: 746750.
  • 99
    Fowden AL, Ralph M, Silver M. Nutritional regulation of uteroplacental prostraglandin production and metabolism in pregnant ewes and mares during late gestation. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1994; 102: 212221.
  • 100
    Burdon C, Mann C, Cindrova-Davies T, Ferguson-Smith AC, Burton GJ. Oxidative stress and the induction of cyclooxygenase enzyme and apoptosis in murine placenta. Placenta 2007; 28: 724733.
  • 101
    Whittle WL, Patel FA, Alfaidy N, Holloway AC, Fraser M, Gyomovey S, Lye SJ, Gibb W, Challis JRG. Glucocorticoid regulation of human and ovine parturition: the relationship between fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and intrauterine prostaglad production. Biol Reprod 2001; 64: 10191032.
  • 102
    Drake AJ, Tang JI, Nyirenda MJ. Mechanisms underlying the role of glucocorticoids in early life programming of adult disease. Clin Sci 2007; 113: 219232.
  • 103
    Wilcoxon JS, Redei EE. Prenatal programming of adult thyroid function by alcohol and thyroid hormones. Am J Physiol 2004; 287: E318E326.
  • 104
    Johnstone JF, Bocking AD, Unlugedik E, Challis JR. The effects of chorioamnionitis and betamethasone on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 and the glucocorticoid receptor in preterm human placenta. J Soc Gynecol Invest 2005; 12: 238245.
  • 105
    Fujisawa J, Nakagawa Y, Ren-Shan L, Ohzehi T. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the pregnant rat reduces 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in placenta and fetal kidney. Life Sci 2004; 75: 27972805.
  • 106
    Bertram C, Trowern AR, Copin N, Jackson AA, Wharwood CB. The maternal diet during pregnancy programs altered expression of the glucocorticoid receptor and type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: potential molecular mechanisms underlying the programming of hypertension in utero. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 28412853.
  • 107
    Langley-Evans SC, Phillips GJ, Benediktsson R, Gardner D, Edwards CR, Jackson AA, Seckl JR. Protein intake in pregnancy, placental glycocorticoid metabolism and the programming of hypertension in the rat. Placenta 1994; 17: 169172.
  • 108
    Whorwood CB, Firth KM, Budge H, Symonds ME. Maternal undernutrition during early to mid gestation programs tissue-specific alterations in the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor, 11βhydroxsterond dehydrogenase isoforms, and type I angiotensin II receptor in neonatal sheep. Endocrinology 2001; 142: 28542864.
  • 109
    McMullen S, Ogersby JC, Thurston LM, Gadd TS, Wood PJ, Wathes DC, Michael AE. Alterations in placental 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) activity and fetal cortisol: cortisone ratios induced by nutritional restriction prior to conception and as defined stages of gestation in ewes. Reproduction 2004; 127: 717725.
  • 110
    Gnanalingham MG, Williams P, Wilson V, Bisphan J, Hyatt MA, Pellicano A, Budge H, Stephenson T, Symonds ME. Nutritional manipulation between early to mid gestation: effects on uncoupling protein-2, glucocorticoid sensitivity, IGF-I receptor and cell proliferation but not apoptosis in the ovine placenta. Reproduction 2007; 134: 615623.
  • 111
    Welberg LA, Thrivikramen KV, Plotsky PM. Chronic maternal stress inhibits the capacity to up-regulate placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity. J Endocrinol 2005; 186: R7R12.
  • 112
    Mairesse J, Lesage J, Breton C, Breant B, Hahn T, Darnaudery M, Dickson SL, Seckl J, Bondeau B, Vieau D, Maccari S, Viltart O. Maternal stress alters endocrine function of the feto-placental unit in rats. Am J Physiol 2007; 292: E1526E1533.
  • 113
    Strand F, Mazancova K, Miksik I, Pavek P, Fendrich Z, Pacha J. Corticosterone transfer and metabolism in the dually perfused rat placenta: effect of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Placenta 2006; 27: 171180.
  • 114
    Van Beck JP, Guan H, Julan L, Yang K. Glucocorticoids stimulate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in cultured human placental trophoblast cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 56145621.
  • 115
    Burton PJ, Waddell BJ. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat placenta: developmental changes and the effects of altered glucocorticoid exposure. J Endocrinol 1994; 143: 505513.
  • 116
    Kerzner LS, Stonesweet BS, Wu K-Y, Sadowska G, Malee MP. Antenatal dexamethasone: effect on ovine placental 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 expression and fetal growth. Ped Res 2002; 52: 706712.
  • 117
    Ma XH, Wu WX, Nathanielsz PW. Gestation related and betamethasone-induced changes in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in the baboon placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188: 1321.
  • 118
    Clifton VL, Rennie N, Murphy VE. Effect of inhaled glucocorticoid treatment on placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity and neonatal birthweight in pregnancies complicated by asthma. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2006; 46: 136140.
  • 119
    Clarke K, Ward JW, Forhead AJ, Giussani DA, Fowden AL. Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in ovine placenta by fetal cortisol. J Endocrinol 2002; 172: 527534.
  • 120
    Waddell BJ, Benediktsson R, Brown RW, Seckl JR. Tissue-specific messenger ribonuclear acid expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Types 1 and 2 and the glycocorticoid receptor within the rat placenta suggests exquisite local control of glucocorticoid action. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 15171523.
  • 121
    Alfraidy N, Gupta S, DeMarco C, Caniggin I, Challis JR. Oxygen regulation of placental 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2: physiological and pathological complications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87: 47974805.
  • 122
    Yang K, Shearman K, Asamo H, Richardson BS. Effects of hypoxemia on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 gene expression in preterm fetal sheep. J Soc Gynecol Invest 1997; 4: 124128.
  • 123
    Murotsuki J, Gagnon R, Pu X, Yang K. Chronic hypoxemia selectively downregulates 11β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene expression in the fetal sheep kidney. Biol Reprod 1998; 58: 234239.
  • 124
    Fowden AL, Li J, Forhead AJ. Glucocorticoids and the preparation for life after birth: are there long term consequences of the life insurance? Proc Nutr Soc 1998; 57: 113122.
  • 125
    McTernan CL, Draper N, Nicholson H, Chalder SM, Driver P, Hewison M, Kilby MD, Stewart PM. Reduced placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 2 mRNA levels in human pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction: an analysis of possible mechanisms. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86: 49794983.
  • 126
    Forhead AJ, Curtis K, Kapstein E, Visser TJ, Fowden AL. Developmental control of iodothyronine deiodinases by cortisol in the ovine fetus and placenta near term. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 59885994.
  • 127
    Luo ZC, Fraser WD, Julien P, Deal CL, Audibert F, Smith GN, Xiong X, Walker M. Tracing the origins of ‘fetal origin’ of adult disease: programming by oxidative stress? Med Hypotheses 2006; 66: 3844.