Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the metabolic activity of the adult brain, and neuropsychiatric manifestations of thyroid disease have long been recognised. However, it is only recently that methodology such as functional neuroimaging has been available to facilitate investigation of thyroid hormone metabolism. Although the role of thyroid hormones in the adult brain is not yet specified, it is clear that without optimal thyroid function, mood disturbance, cognitive impairment and other psychiatric symptoms can emerge. Additionally, laboratory measurements of peripheral thyroid function may not adequately characterise central thyroid metabolism. Here, we review the relationship between thyroid hormone and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with primary thyroid disease and primary mood disorders.