The neurohypophysial hormones, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are synthesised by magnocellular cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. The release of VP into the general circulation from the neurohypophysis increases during hyperosmolality, hypotension and hypovolaemia. VP neurones increase hormone release by increasing their firing rate as a result of adopting a phasic bursting. Depolarising after potentials (DAPs) following a series of action potentials are considered to be involved in the generation of the phasic bursts by summating to plateau potentials. We recently discovered a fast DAP (fDAP) in addition to the slower DAP characterised previously. Almost all VP neurones expressed the fDAP, whereas only 16% of OT neurones had this property, which implicates the involvement of fDAP in the generation of the firing patterns in VP neurones. Our findings obtained from electrophysiological experiments suggested that the ionic current underlying the fDAP is mediated by those of two closely-related Ca2+-activated cation channels: the melastatin-related subfamily of transient receptor potential channels, TRPM4 and TRPM5. In the present study, double/triple immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction techniques were employed to evaluate whether TRPM4 and TRPM5 are specifically located in VP neurones. Using specific antibodies against these channels, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was found almost exclusively in VP neurones, but not in OT neurones in both the SON and PVN. The most prominent TRPM5 immunoreactivity was in the dendrites of VP neurones. By contrast, most TRPM4 immunoreactivity occurred in cell bodies of both VP and OT neurones. TRPM4 and TRPM5 mRNA were both found in a cDNA library derived from SON punches. These results indictate the possible involvement of TRPM5 in the generation of the fDAP, and these channels may play an important role in determining the distinct firing properties of VP neurones in the SON.