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Relations among depression, self-efficacy and optimism in a sample of nurses in Taiwan


Yi-Chung Liu
Department of Neurology
Ten-Chan General Hospital


chang y., wang p.-c., li h.-h.&liu y.-c. (2011) Journal of Nursing Management19, 769–776
Relations among depression, self-efficacy and optimism in a sample of nurses in Taiwan

Aims  The present study investigated the level of depression among hospital nurses, to examine personality contributions to depression and to offer managers relevant organizational strategies to reduce levels of depression.

Background  The World Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease Study estimates that major depression is the leading cause of disability among women in the world today. It is surprising that there is a relative dearth of research investigating depression among nursing staff.

Method  A cross-sectional survey of 314 staff nurses in a general hospital in Taiwan. Participants completed a set of questionnaires and a demographic information form. A number of statistical methods were used including descriptive statistics, product-moment correlations and multiple regression analysis.

Results  In all, 52.5% of nurses reported mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and optimism were significant buffers against depression.

Conclusions  The results of the present study confirm the importance of self-efficacy and optimism. Nurses with positive evaluation and expectation towards their self and others tend to report lower depression levels.

Implications for Nursing Management  The results of the present study indicate that there is an immediate need to pay further attention to nurses’ depression issues. It is therefore suggested that Nursing Managers take an empowering approach to strengthen nurses’ self-efficacy and optimism levels to prevent depression in this profession.

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