The present survey aims to study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) and cervical dentine hypersensitivity (CDH), as well as their possible risk factors in a general population in China. A total of 1023 subjects were included in the present study. Each subject completed a structured interview, and all teeth of each subject were examined by a practitioner to determine NCCLs and CDH. Teeth with NCCLs and CDH were diagnosed according to the tooth wear index and by a blast of air from a triple syringe, respectively. Binary logistic regression was completed by analysing the association of risk factors with the occurrence of NCCLs and CDH. Loss of attachment (LOA) and gingival recession (GR) of teeth with NCCLs and/or CDH were measured using Williams periodontal probe. The diagnoses of NCCLs and CDH established following a clinical assessment yielded an overall prevalence of 61·7% and 27·1%, respectively. The 60–69 age group had the greatest proportion of subjects with NCCLs or CDH. The pre-molars were the most commonly affected teeth type with NCCLs or CDH. The proportion of teeth with CDH associated with NCCLs increased significantly with age, but the proportion of teeth with CDH only associated with LOA or GR decreased slowly with age. The single variables and interactive effects of variables associated with the occurrence of NCCLs include the following: age group, occupation type, method of toothbrushing, frequency and method of toothbrushing, and method of toothbrushing and duration of a toothbrush used. Gender, age group, occupation type and frequency of toothbrushing were associated with the occurrence of CDH. The current study presented higher prevalence of NCCLs and CDH in a general Chinese population. Both diseases were closely associated with age and periodontal status. The portion of the population with NCCLs or CDH had different risk factors.