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Keywords:

  • arousal;
  • awakening;
  • cortical;
  • electroencephalography;
  • infant;
  • sleep;
  • subcortical

Summary

Various definitions of arousals have been used in infants. An international group of experts has worked on a consensus for the scoring of arousals in healthy infants, aged between 1 and 6 months. This opinion paper summarizes the consensus statement on the scoring of arousal. The paper reviews recommended techniques for the recording of arousal in infants. Scoring includes the differentiation between subcortical activation, with no visible change n the electroencephalograph (EEG) recording, and cortical arousals associated with EEG changes. The arousals are further scored as spontaneous or induced, according to environmental conditions. Potential limitations to the method are discussed, with the hope that this document could contribute to promote further progresses in the scoring of infants arousals from sleep.