The initial sequence of seven steps was estimated under the simplest assumptions about the error structure over time (i.e. homoscedasticity and independence of errors). As Table 3 shows for positive affect, the fit (−2LL) of this model was 7800.90. We re-estimated this model under alternative error structure assumptions, including diagonal (heteroscedasticity and independence of observations; −2LL = 7778.17), compound symmetry (homoscedasticity and fixed correlation between all occasions; model would not converge), and autoregressive error (AR(1); homoscedasticity and interoccasion correlations that are reduced, exponentially, by the temporal lag between them; −2LL = 7761.30). Thus, homoscedasticity and independence of errors are not tenable assumptions in these data, and AR(1) provided the best specification of the repeated measures error of the three approaches tested. It is important to note, however, that all fixed and random parameter estimates remained essentially unchanged under different error structure assumptions, and the pattern of significance was not altered.
Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations
Article first published online: 11 FEB 2008
© 2008 European Sleep Research Society
Journal of Sleep Research
Volume 17, Issue 1, pages 42–53, March 2008
How to Cite
MCCRAE, C. S., McNAMARA, J. P. H., ROWE, M. A., DZIERZEWSKI, J. M., DIRK, J., MARSISKE, M. and CRAGGS, J. G. (2008), Sleep and affect in older adults: using multilevel modeling to examine daily associations. Journal of Sleep Research, 17: 42–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00621.x
As a concluding step, for negative affect, we again examined the tenability of the homoscedasticity and errors independence assumptions for the repeated measures, for which the −2LL (Table 3) was 6660.12. As with Positive Affect, alternative error structures provided better fits to the data: diagonal,−2LL = 6598.45; compound symmetry, model again would not converge; and autoregressive error,−2LL = 6628.23. Thus, for Negative Affect, of the three specifications of repeated measures error tested, a diagonal structure provided the best fit to the data. Again, as with Positive Affect, different error structure specifications had little effect on fixed and random parameter estimates or their pattern of significance.
- Issue published online: 11 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 11 FEB 2008
- Accepted in revised form 14 September 2007; received 9 January 2007
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