Benefits of napping in healthy adults: impact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping
Article first published online: 19 MAY 2009
© 2009 European Sleep Research Society
Journal of Sleep Research
Volume 18, Issue 2, pages 272–281, June 2009
How to Cite
MILNER, C. E. and COTE, K. A. (2009), Benefits of napping in healthy adults: impact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping. Journal of Sleep Research, 18: 272–281. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00718.x
- Issue published online: 19 MAY 2009
- Article first published online: 19 MAY 2009
- Accepted in revised form 20 October 2008; received 16 July 2008
- Naps and modafinil as countermeasures for the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive perfomance. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1999, 70: 493–498. and
- A survey of daytime napping in an elderly Australian population. Aust. J. Psychol., 1994, 46: 100–106.
- Afternoon naps: immediate and delayed effects on performance and mood. Dissert. Abstr. Int., 1986, 46: 3630–3631.
- Habitual napping and performance on the Trail Making test. J. Sleep Res., 2005, 14: 209–210. and
- The effect of varying prophylactic naps on performance, alertness and mood throughout a 52-hour continuous operation. Sleep, 1991, 14: 307–315.
- The use of prophylactic naps and caffeine to maintain performance during a continuous operation. Ergonomics, 1994, 37: 1009–1020. and
- The effect of naps and caffeine on alertness during sleep loss and nocturnal work periods. In: R. W.Backs and W.Boucsein (Eds) Engineering Psychophysiology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 2000: 189–202. and
- The use of caffeine versus prophylactic naps in sustained performance. Sleep, 1995, 18: 97–104. , , and
- A two process model of sleep regulation. Hum. Neurobiol., 1982, 1: 195–204.
- A brief afternoon nap following nocturnal sleep restriction: which nap duration is most recuperative? Sleep, 2006, 29: 831–840. and
- Chronobiological aspects and models of sleep and napping. In: D. F.Dinges and R. J.Broughton (Eds) Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Behavioural, and Medical Aspects of Napping. Raven Press, New York, NY, 1989: 71–98.
- Napping: a ubiquitous enigma. In: D. F.Dinges and R. J.Broughton (Eds) Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Behavioural, and Medical Aspects of Napping. Raven Press, New York, NY, 1989: 1–7. and
- Comparison of the effects of Zolpidem-induced prophylactic naps to placebo naps and forced rest periods in prolonged work schedules. Sleep, 1998, 21: 79–90. and
- Effects of a nap on nighttime sleep and waking function in older subjects. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2005, 53: 48–53. , and
- Sleep-wake patterns and subjective sleep quality of day and night workers: interaction between napping and main sleep episodes. Sleep, 1989, 12: 439–448. , , and
- Correlates of nap taking in mothers of young infants. J. Sleep Res., 2002, 11: 209–212. and
- Effects of afternoon rest on the performance of geriatric patients in a rehabilitation hospital: a pilot study. Am. J. Occup. Ther., 1995, 49: 775–779.
- Napping versus resting: effects on performance and mood. Psychophysiology, 1986, 23: 82–88. , and
- EEG power density during nap sleep: reflection of an hourglass measuring the duration of prior wakefulness. J. Biol. Rhythms, 1987, 2: 207–219. , and
- Napping patterns and effects in human adults. In: D. F.Dinges and R. J.Broughton (Eds) Sleep and Alertness: Chronobiological, Behavioural, and Medical Aspects of Napping. Raven Press, New York, NY, 1989: 171–204.
- Adult napping and its effects on ability to function. In: C.Stampi (Ed.) Why We Nap: Evolution, Chronobiology, and Functions of Polyphasic and Ultrashort Sleep. Birkhauser, Boston, MA, 1992: 118–134.
- Sleep inertia. In: M. A.Carskadon, A.Rechtschaffen, G.Richardson, T.Roth and J.Siegel (Eds) Encyclopedia of Sleep and Dreaming. Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto, ON, 1993: 553–554.
- Performance after naps in sleep-conducive and alerting environments. In: L. C.Johnson, D. I.Tepas, W. P.Colquhoun and M. J.Colligan (Eds) Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work. SP Medical and Scientific Books, New York, NY, 1981: 539–552. , , and
- Assessing performance upon abrupt awakening from naps during quasi-continuous operations. Behav. Res. Meth. Ins. C., 1985, 17: 37–45. , and
- Temporal placement of a nap for alertness: contributions of circadian phase and prior wakefulness. Sleep, 1987, 10: 313–329. , , and
- Appetitive and replacement naps: EEG and behavior. Science, 1977, 197: 687–689. , , , and
- The sleep inertia phenomenon during the sleep-wake transition: theoretical and operational issues. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 2000, 71: 843–848. and
- Selective slow-wave sleep deprivation and time-of-night effects on cognitive performance upon awakening. Psychophysiology, 2000, 37: 440–446. , , and
- Circadian preference, sleep and daytime behavior in adolescence. J. Sleep Res., 2002, 11: 191–199. , , and
- The effects of two alternative timings of a one-hour nap on early morning performance. Biol. Psychol., 1984, 19: 45–54.
- The effects of a short daytime nap after restricted night sleep. Sleep, 1996, 19: 570–575. , , and
- Age, time of testing, and proactive interference. Can. J. Exp. Psychol., 2002, 56: 200–207. , , and
- The effects of a 20-min nap before post-lunch dip. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 1998, 52: 203–204. and
- The effects of a 20-min nap at noon on sleepiness, performance and EEG activity. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 1999a, 32: 173–180. , and
- The effects of a 20 min nap in the mid-afternoon on mood, performance and EEG activity. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1999b, 110: 272–279. , and
- The alerting effects of caffeine, bright light and face washing after a short daytime nap. Clin. Neurophysiol., 2003, 114: 2268–2278. , and
- Recuperative power of a short daytime nap with or without Stage 2 sleep. Sleep, 2005, 28: 829–836. , and
- The alerting effects of short and long naps in narcoleptic, sleep deprived, and alert individuals. Sleep, 1997, 20: 251–257. , , , , and
- Diurnal variation in the P300 component of human cognitive event-related potential. Chronobiol. Int., 2000, 17: 669–678. , , , and
- The effects of the level of alertness during the rest period on subsequent performance. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon., 2003, 9: 479–490. and
- Sleep inertia: performance changes after sleep, rest and active waking. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res., 2005, 22: 323–331. , , , , , , and
- Models of circadian and homeostatic regulation of human performance and alertness. Dissert. Abstr. Int., 1997, 58: 2532.
- Effects of sleep quality and daytime naps on the mood and functioning of older persons. Dissert. Abstr. Int., 1989, 49: 2350–2351.
- An ultra short episode of sleep is sufficient to promote declarative memory performance. J. Sleep Res., 2008, 17: 3–10. , , and
- Timing of naps: effects on post-nap sleepiness levels. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1989, 72: 218–224. and
- Napping habits of a college student population. Psychophysiology, 1970, 7: 294–295. and
- Relationship between napping and melatonin in the blind. J. Biol. Rhythms, 1997, 12: 16–25. and
- The alerting effects of naps in sleep-deprived subjects. Psychophysiology, 1986, 23: 403–408. , , , and
- Effects of an afternoon nap on nighttime alertness and performance in long-haul drivers. Accid. Anal. Prev., 2002, 34: 825–834. , , , and
- Sleep-dependent learning: a nap is as good as a night. Nat. Neurosci., 2003, 6: 697–698. , and
- A dose-response investigation of the benefits of napping in healthy young, middle, and older adult age groups. Sleep Biol. Rhythms, 2007, 6: 2–15. and
- Habitual napping moderates motor performance improvements following a short daytime nap. Biol. Psychol., 2006, 73: 141–156. , and
- Circadian cycles and restorative power of naps. In: L. C.Johnson, D. I.Tepas, W. P.Colquhoun and M. J.Colligan (Eds) Biological Rhythms, Sleep and Shift Work. SP Medical and Scientific Books, New York, NY, 1981: 553.580.
- National Sleep Foundation. 2003 Sleep in America poll, 2003. Retrieved on September 8, 2003 from http://www.sleepfoundation.org.
- National Sleep Foundation. 2008 Sleep in America poll, 2008. Retrieved on June 28, 2008 from http://www.sleepfoundation.org.
- Dose response effects of short duration naps during extended wakefulness. Sleep, 2004, 27(Suppl.): A155. , , and
- Working while the world sleeps: a consideration of sleep and shift work design. Empl. Responsib. Rights J., 2002, 14: 145–157. , and
- Prevalence of naps in the general population. Sleep Hypn., 1999, 1: 88–97. and
- The impact of a nap opportunity during the night shift on the performance and alertness of 12-h shift workers. J. Sleep Res., 2002, 11: 219–227. , and
- Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: combination of caffeine with a short nap. Psychophysiology, 1997, 34: 721–725. and
- Napping at home and alertness on the job in rotating shift workers. Sleep, 1993, 16: 727–735.
- Promoting alertness with a short nap during a night shift. J. Sleep Res., 1998, 7: 240–247. , , , and
- Encoding difficulty promotes postlearning changes in sleep spindle activity during napping. J. Neurosci., 2006, 26: 8976–8982. , , , , , , , and
- Ultradian rhythms. In: M. A.Carskadon, A.Rechtschaffen, G.Richardson, T.Roth and J.Siegel (Eds) Encyclopedia of Sleep and Dreaming. Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Toronto, ON, 1993: 639–641.
- Napping and nightshift work: effects of a short nap on psychomotor vigilance and subjective sleepiness in health workers. Sleep Biol. Rhythms, 2007, 5: 117–125. , , and
- Effects of naps during sleep deprivation on symbol recognition and P300. Chinese Ment. Health J., 2002, 16: 515–517. , , , , , and
- Sleep and sleeplessness in advanced age. Adv. Sleep Res., 1981, 5: 1–272.
- The role of prescribed napping in sleep medicine. Sleep Med. Rev., 2003, 7: 227–235.
- Sleep inertia and autonomic effects on post-nap P300 event-related potential. Ind. Health, 1998, 36: 347–353. and
- Maintenance of alertness and performance by a brief nap after lunch under prior sleep deficit. Sleep, 2000, 23: 1–7. and
- Brief naps during post-lunch rest: effects on alertness, performance, and autonomic balance. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol., 1998, 78: 93–98. , and
- Effects of a daytime nap in the aged. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 1999, 53: 273–275. , , , and
- Restorative effects of a short afternoon nap (<30 min) in the elderly on subjective mood, performance and EEG activity. Sleep Res. Online, 2000, 3: 131–139. , , and
- Sleep health, lifestyle and mental health in the Japanese elderly: ensuring sleep to promote a healthy brain and mind. J. Psychosom. Res., 2004, 56: 465–477. and
- Effects of short nap and exercise on elderly people having difficulty in sleeping. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2001, 55: 173–174. , , , , , , , and
- Short naps and exercise improve sleep quality and mental health in the elderly. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 2002, 56: 233–234. , , , , , , , and
- Effects of noise on sleep inertia as a function of circadian placement of a one-hour nap. Percept. Mot. Skills, 1992, 75: 291–302. , , , , , , and
- Effects of habitual variations in napping on psychomotor performance, memory and subjective states. Int. J. Neurosci., 1979, 9: 97–112.
- Effects of daytime naps on performance and mood in a college student population. J. Abnorm. Psychol., 1976, 85: 210–217. , and
- Effects of afternoon naps on physiological variables performance and self-reported activation. Biol. Psychol., 1977, 5: 191–210. , and
- The short-term benefits of brief and long naps following nocturnal sleep restriction. Sleep, 2001, 24: 293–300. and
- The recuperative value of brief and ultra-brief naps on alertness and cognitive performance. J. Sleep Res., 2002a, 11: 213–218. and
- Alertness and cognitive performance benefits associated with brief daytime naps. Sleep, 2002b, 25 (Abstract Supplement): A402. and
- A daytime nap containing solely non-REM sleep enhances declarative but not procedural memory. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem., 2006, 86: 241–247. , , , , and
- An observational study of sleep of the aged. Percept. Mot. Skills, 1971, 32: 895–898. and