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Dorrestein, G.M. & van Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects of medication of birds. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 11, 33–44.

This review covers current knowledge of the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs in avian species. Special attention has been paid to inter-species differences in relation to metabolic elimination, anatomy and physiology of the digestive and respiratory system, and differences in drug distribution. Intra-species differences attributable to physicochemical aspects of the drug preparation and physiological conditions of the avian patient can also influence drug efficacy. The consequences of the choice of a particular method of drug administration on pharmacokinetics are also considered.