Tissue chambers, implanted subcutaneously in ponies, were inoculated with Streptococcus zooepidemicus. The animals received either no antibiotics or one of the following treatments: pivampicillin per os (19.9 mg/kg, equivalent to 15 mg/kg ampicillin, every 12 h) for 7 or 21 days (7 and 5 ponies, respectively), procaine penicillin G intramuscularly (12 mg/kg = 12,000 IU/kg, every 24 h) for 7 days (7 ponies), or ampicillin sodium intravenously (equivalent to 15 mg/kg ampicillin, every 8 h) for 1 day (5 ponies). Only intravenous administration was started before infection (prophylactically), the other treatments were started 20 h after infection (curatively). A total of 7 ponies received no antibiotics. In untreated controls, the infection led to abscessation of the tissue chamber in 4 to 10 days. Curative treatment with either pivampicillin or procaine penicillin G for 7 days resulted in a reduction of viable bacteria in the tissue chamber but did not eliminate the infection, resulting in abscessation in 5 to 14 days. However, administration of pivampicillin for 21 days eliminated the streptococci in five out of five ponies and prophylactic administration of ampicillin was successful in three out of five ponies.