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A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for midazolam in the chicken and extended to three other species. Physiological parameters included organ weights obtained from 10 birds of each species and blood flows obtained from the literature. Partition coefficients for midazolam in tissues vs. plasma were estimated from drug residue data obtained at slaughter. The avian models include separate compartments for venous plasma, liver, kidney, muscle, fat and all other tissues. An estimate of total body clearance from an earlier in vitro study was used as a starting value in the model, assuming almost complete removal of the parent compound by liver metabolism. The model was optimized for the chicken with plasma and tissue data from a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous midazolam (5 mg/kg) dose. To determine which parameters had the most influence on the goodness of fit, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The optimized chicken model was then modified for the turkey, pheasant and quail. The models were validated with midazolam plasma and tissue residue data in the turkey, pheasant and quail. The PBPK models in the turkey, pheasant and quail provided good predictions of the observed tissue residues in each species, in particular for liver and kidney.