King, J. N., Arnaud, J. P., Goldenthal, E. I., Gruet, P., Jung, M., Seewald, W., Lees, P. Robenacoxib in the dog: target species safety in relation to extent and duration of inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 298–311.
The safety of robenacoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with high selectivity for inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoform of COX, was investigated in the dog in two randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group studies. Robenacoxib was administered orally once daily to healthy young beagle dogs at 0 (placebo), 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg for 1 month (Study 1) and at 0 (placebo), 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg/kg for 6 months (Study 2). Relative to placebo treatment, no significant adverse effects of robenacoxib were recorded in either study for clinical observations, haematological and clinical chemistry variables or macroscopic or microscopic lesions at necropsy. In Study 2, additional examinations identified no adverse effects of robenacoxib on buccal bleeding time, electrocardiographic and ophthalmoscopic examinations, urinalysis or stifle joint tissues. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic simulations indicated that all dosages of robenacoxib were associated with marked inhibition of COX-2 (median Emax 74–99% inhibition). For the highest dosage of robenacoxib (40 mg/kg in Study 1), the upper limit of the 90% tolerance interval was associated with 71% inhibition of COX-1 at Emax, but 50% inhibition persisted for only 3.5 h. This level of inhibition of COX-1 with robenacoxib was not associated with any detectable toxicity, suggesting that the high safety index of robenacoxib in dogs is a function of both its high COX-2 selectivity and short residence time in the central compartment.