Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular tramadol in llamas
Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010
© 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume 34, Issue 3, pages 259–264, June 2011
How to Cite
COX, S., MARTIN-JIMENEZ, T., Van AMSTEL, S. and DOHERTY, T. (2011), Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular tramadol in llamas. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 34: 259–264. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2010.01219.x
- Issue published online: 14 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 20 JUL 2010
- (Paper received 22 February 2010; accepted for publication 18 May 2010)
Cox, S., Martin-Jimenez, T., van Amstel, S., Doherty, T. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular tramadol in Llamas. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 259–264.
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its metabolite M1 after intravenous and intramuscular administration to llamas. Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic whose efficacy is a result of complex interactions between opiate, adrenergic and serotonin receptor systems, has been used clinically to treat moderate to severe pain in humans. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tramadol and M1 in plasma were examined following intravenous and intramuscular administration to six healthy male llamas. Tramadol half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state and clearance after intravenous administration were 2.12 ± 0.37 h, 4.02 ± 1.16 L/kg and 1728.73 ± 152.82 mL/h/kg, respectively. The bioavailability was 110 ± 21% and half-life 2.54 ± 0.31 h following intramuscular administration of tramadol. M1 had a half-life of 10.40 ± 2.90 h and 7.71 ± 0.54 h following intravenous and intramuscular administration of tramadol.