Whittem, T., Whittem, J. H., Constable, P. D. Modelling the concentration–time relationship in milk from cattle administered an intramammary drug. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap. 35, 460–471.
Antimicrobial drugs are often infused directly through the streak canal into the bovine udder for the treatment or prevention of mastitis. These infusions have two major problems: drug residues in milk and variable antimicrobial efficacy. Both problems are influenced by the pharmacokinetics of intramammary delivery and elimination of drugs. This pharmacokinetics does not conform to the assumptions of traditional first-order mamillary pharmacokinetic models. To help understand drug delivery into and elimination from the udder, a new approach to pharmacokinetic modelling of the udder is proposed. This new model was used to predict the movement of drug within the udder and the concentrations of drug achieved within physiological compartments of the udder. These predictions were examined using computer modelling. The model was evaluated using data from in vivo intramammary infusion of cefuroxime. The model predicts that changes in milking efficiency (residual volume), milk productivity and milking frequency can impact both the drug residue persistence and the time that milk drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations for pathogens. The model provides a new tool for future evaluation of intramammary dosing studies.